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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 203234 matches for " Krishna N. Patel "
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Assessment of hepatoprotective effect of Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem., Bignoniaceae, on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats
Patel, Krishna N.;Gupta, Gajendra;Goyal, Manoj;Nagori, B. P.;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000020
Abstract: the aim of the present study was to validate the hepatoprotective activity of bark of tecomella undulata (sm.) seem., biognoniaceae, against paracetamol (pcm) induced hepatic damage. chloroform soluble fraction (fraction-i), acetone soluble fraction (fraction-ii), methanol soluble fraction (fraction-iii) and methanol insoluble fraction (fraction-iv) of ethanolic extract of bark of t. undulata were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatic damage using biochemical, morphological, functional and histopathological studies. the methanol soluble fraction (fraction-iii) was most potent among the four fractions studied in detail. fraction-iii showed significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatic damage as evident by normalization of substantially elevated levels of aspartate amino transferase (ast), alanine amino transferase (alt), alkaline phosphatase (alp) and total bilirubin (tbil), decreased level of total protein (tp), increased wet liver weight and volume, increased thiopentone sodium induced sleeping time and abnormal histopathology. present study showed that the fraction-iii of ethanolic extract of bark of t. undulata significantly restores physiological integrity of hepatocytes. fraction-iii did not show any sign of toxicity up to oral dose of 1500 mg/kg in mice.
Assessment of hepatoprotective effect of Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem., Bignoniaceae, on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats
Krishna N. Patel,Gajendra Gupta,Manoj Goyal,B. P. Nagori
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to validate the hepatoprotective activity of bark of Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem., Biognoniaceae, against paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatic damage. Chloroform soluble fraction (Fraction-I), acetone soluble fraction (Fraction-II), methanol soluble fraction (Fraction-III) and methanol insoluble fraction (Fraction-IV) of ethanolic extract of bark of T. undulata were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatic damage using biochemical, morphological, functional and histopathological studies. The methanol soluble fraction (Fraction-III) was most potent among the four fractions studied in detail. Fraction-III showed significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatic damage as evident by normalization of substantially elevated levels of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (TBil), decreased level of total protein (TP), increased wet liver weight and volume, increased thiopentone sodium induced sleeping time and abnormal histopathology. Present study showed that the Fraction-III of ethanolic extract of bark of T. undulata significantly restores physiological integrity of hepatocytes. Fraction-III did not show any sign of toxicity up to oral dose of 1500 mg/kg in mice.
Self correcting monolithic floating matrix tablets of dipyridamole: Influence of formulation variables
Patel V,Patel N
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The present investigation describes the influence of content of polyethylene oxide and ratio of lactose to starch 1500 on dipyridamole release from self correcting floating matrix tablets using 32 full factorial design. Tablets were evaluated for in vitro floating ability and drug release study using USP 24 type II apparatus using 0.1 N HCI at 100 rpm and temperature of 37±0.50. Multiple regression analysis and two way analysis of variance followed by Tukey test were performed for dependent variables. All formulations floated within 2 min regardless of factors studied and had total floating time of more than 12 h. It was observed that both the factors had significant influence on all dependent variable studied ( P< 0.05) except the ratio of lactose to starch 1500 did not significantly contribute for Q1 ( P > 0.05). As content of polymer increased the release rate declined with increase in value of diffusion exponent giving anomalous drug release to zero order drug release ( P < 0.05). It was observed that above a certain threshold level of polymer content further increase did not contribute significantly for percentage drug release. Lactose gave higher drug release with release mechanism towards zero order compared to starch 1500 which gave slower release with release mechanism towards diffusion based. Although both the factors significantly contribute for percentage drug release at different time point, the content of polymer dominated. It was observed that polymer content was a dominant controlling factor for drug release kinetics and it could be controlled by employing various blends of fillers.
Statistical evaluation of influence of viscosity of polymer and types of filler on dipyridamole release from floating matrix tablets
Patel V,Patel N
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Present investigation describes statistically the influence of viscosity of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and types of filler on dipyridamole release from floating matrix tablets using 3 2 full factorial design. Tablets were prepared using direct compression technique. Tablets were evaluated for in vitro floating ability and drug release study using USP 24 types II paddle apparatus using 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) at rotation of 100 rpm and temperature of 37±0.5°. Multiple regression analysis was performed for dependent variables studied and to evaluate contribution of factors with their levels two way ANOVA was performed followed by Tukey test. Polynomial equations and response surface plots were generated for all dependent variables. It was observed that both the factors had significant influence on all dependent variable studied (p< 0.05). It was observed that as viscosity of polymer increases the release rate constant was decreased. Release rate obtained was highest when microcrystalline cellulose was employed as filler followed by dicalcium phosphate and lactose. Mechanism of drug release was anomalous types and depends upon viscosity of polymer and types of filler used. Microcrystalline cellulose gave release mechanism nearer to diffusion mechanism while dicalcium phosphate and lactose gave anomalous release. It was observed that both the factors had significant contribution on all dependent variables studied. A major controlling factor for kinetics of drug release was viscosity of polymer and it can be modified by incorporation of different types of filler. In initial phase of drug release viscosity of polymer and types of filler both governs the drug release while in later phase only the viscosity of polymer predominates.
Simultaneous RP-HPLC and HPTLC estimation of fluoxetine hydrochloride and olanzapine in tablet dosage forms
Patel Sejal,Patel N
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: A binary mixture of fluoxetine HCl and olanzapine was determined by two different methods. The first method involved determination of fluoxetine HCl and olanzapine using reversed-phase liquid chromatography using acetonitrile:methanol:0.032 M ammonium acetate buffer (45:05:50, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. Quantitation was achieved with ultraviolet detection at 235 nm over concentration ranges of 0.2-4 and 0.1-2 μg/ml; mean accuracies were 101.16±0.59 and 99.79±0.56% for fluoxetine HCL and olanzapine, respectively. The second method was based on the high performance thin layer chromatography separation of the two drugs followed by densitometric measurements of their spots at 235 nm. The separation was carried out on Merck TLC aluminium sheets of silica gel 60 F254 using acetone:methanol:triethyleamine (5:3:0.5, v/v/v), as mobile phase. The linearity was found to be in the range of 300-1000 and 150-500 ng/spot; mean accuracies were 100.95±0.52 and 99.31±0.51% for fluoxetine HCl and olanzapine, respectively. The method was successively applied to tablets because no chromatographic interferences from the tablet excipients were found. The methods retained their accuracy and precision when the standard addition technique was applied. The results obtained by applying the proposed methods were statistically analyzed.
Synthesis and antibacterial and antifungal studies of novel nitrogen containing heterocycles from 5-Ethylpyridin-2-ethanol
Patel N,Patel H
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: A novel series of chalcones, pyrimidines and imidazolinone is described; chalcones (4a-o) were prepared from the lead molecule 4-[2-(5-ethylpyridin-2-yl)ethoxy]benzaldehyde. Pyrimidine (5a-o) derivatives were prepared from the reaction of chalcones and guanidine nitrate in alkali media. Imidazolinones (6a-o) were synthesized from reaction of pyrimidine and oxazolone derivatives (prepared by Erlenmeyer azlactone synthesis). The structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectral data. All the products were screened against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Most of these compounds showed better inhibitory activity in comparison to the standard drugs.
Simultaneous RP-HPLC estimation of trifluoperazine hydrochloride and chlordiazepoxide in tablet dosage forms
Patel Sejal,Patel N
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: A binary mixture of trifluoperazine HCl and chlordiazepoxide was determined using reversed-phase liquid chromatography method using methanol:water (97:03, v/v) pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Quantification was achieved with ultraviolet detection at 262 nm over concentration ranges of 0.1-1 and 0.5-5 μg/ml; mean accuracies were 101.05±0.47 and 98.97±0.33 %, respectively. The method was successively applied to tablet dosage forms as no chromatographic interferences from the tablet excipients were observed. The method retained its accuracy and precision when the standard addition technique was applied.
Spectrophotometric and chromatographic simultaneous estimation of amitriptyline hydrochloride and chlordiazepoxide in tablet dosage forms
Patel Sejal,Patel N
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: A binary mixture of amitriptyline HCl and chlordiazepoxide was determined by three different methods. The first method involved determination of amitriptyline HCl and chlordiazepoxide using the first derivative spectrophotometric technique at 219 and 230 nm over the concentration ranges of 1-20 and 2-24 μg/ml with mean accuracies 100.9±0.87 and 99.2±1.0%, respectively. The second method was reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography using methanol: acetonitrile: 0.065 M ammonium acetate buffer (50:20:30, v/v/v), final pH adjust to 5.5 ± 0.02 with ortho phosphoric acid as the mobile phase and was pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Quantification was achieved with ultraviolet detection at 240 nm over concentration ranges of 0.25-4 and 0.1-1.6 μg/ml; mean accuracies were 100.55±0.62 and 100.71±0.81%, respectively. The third method utilized high performance thin layer chromatography method in tablet dosage form. The method was based on separation of the two drugs followed by densitometric measurements of their spots at 240 nm. The separation was carried out on Merck thin layer chromatographic aluminium sheets of silica gel 60 F254 using carbon tetrachloride: acetone: triethylamine (6:3:0.2, v/v/v) as mobile phase. The linearity was found to be in the range of 50-600 and 20-240 ng/spot for amitriptyline hydrochloride and chlordiazepoxide, respectively. The methods were successively applied to pharmaceutical formulation because no chromatographic interferences from the tablet excipients were found. The suitability of these methods for the quantitative determination of the compounds was proved by validation.
Early survival and duration of hospital admission in rhabdomyolysis: ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database
Colin A Hutchison, Krishna Patel, Tony Whitehouse
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc10492
Abstract: Acute kidney injury secondary to high serum myoglobin levels is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality for patients with rhabdomyolysis [1]. Theoretically the severity and duration of the tubulointerstitial lesion that results could be reduced if rapid removal of myoglobin from the circulation was undertaken to reduce the tubules' exposure to myoglobin [2]. Recent case reports have highlighted that dialysis membranes with high molecular weight cut-off points (50 kDa) are able to provide significantly higher clearance rates of myoglobin compared with standard high-flux dialysis membranes [3,4].To determine the clinical benefit of providing rapid removal of myoglobin in patients with rhabdomyolysis, randomised controlled trials are now required to determine whether the procedure improves outcomes compared with standard care. Possible clinical outcomes for these studies would be the duration of hospital stay, rates of renal recovery and survival. To allow the design of these studies, current clinical outcomes for this population are required. We therefore interrogated a national database to determine the clinical outcomes for patients with rhabdomyolysis admitted to ICUs.The Case Mix Programme is the national clinical audit of adult, general critical care units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland coordinated by the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre. Data were extracted for 439,834 admissions to 210 ICUs from the Case Mix Programme Database, covering the period from January 2006 to December 2010. Admissions with rhabdomyolysis were identified from the reported primary (mandated), secondary (optional) and ultimate (optional) reasons for admission to the critical care unit and other conditions in past medical history, all coded using the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre Coding Method [5]. Survival data were extracted at discharge from the Case Mix Programme unit and hospital. Length of stay in the ICU was calculated in fractions of day
"Photoadaptor for ocular photography" a new design
Patel N
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1984,
Abstract:
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