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A Different Method of Pinning of Displaced Extension type Supracondylar Fracture of Humerus in Children.
Ram Krishan Arora
JK Science : Journal of Medical Education & Research , 2004,
Abstract: A new /different method of pinning of the displaced extension type supracondylar fractures of thehumerus in children is presented. Here two pairs of K wires are used. The fracture is reduced underC- arm image intensifier control and then two K wires are passed through lateral epicondyle andholding the reduction two more wires are passed from the lateral supra-condylar ridge obliquelydownwards and inwards across the fracture site into the medial epicondyle. Thirty cases, thus treated,are presented here. Mean follow up for 26 cases was 28 months. Four cases were lost to follow up.At the final follow up ,using Flynn's overall modified classification, the clinical result was consideredto be excellent in 19 (73%) patients, good in 5 (19.23%) and poor in 2 (7.69%) patients. The protocoldescribed here resulted in good to excellent results in 24/26 cases (92.30%) thus proving its usefulnessin displaced extension type supracondylar fractures in children.
Load Frequency Control of Interconnected Hydro-Thermal System with Conventional Controllers and Expert Controllers
Krishan Arora,Baljinder Singh
Buletin Teknik Elektro dan Informatika , 2012,
Abstract: Load-frequency control (LFC) is a part of the Automatic Generation Control (AGC) in power systems, the aim of which is to maintain the system frequency and tie line flow at their scheduled values during normal period in an interconnected system. This research paper is devoted to explore the interconnection of the load frequency control of hydro power system and the thermal system. The thermal system is comprised with governor dead band, generation rate constraint and boiler dynamics where as the hydro system is comprised with generation rate constraint. The conventional PID controller does not have adequate control performance with the consideration of nonlinearities and boiler dynamics. To overcome this drawback, Genetic Algorithm helps in solving optimization problems by exploitation of random search. The aim of the proposed expert controller is to restore the frequency to its nominal value in the smallest possible time whenever there is any change in the load demand etc.
Automatic Generation Control for Interconnected Hydro-thermal System with the help of Conventional Controllers
Vikram Kumar Kamboj,Krishan Arora,Preeti Khurana
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.11591/ijece.v2i4.305
Abstract: The Problem of Automatic Generation Control of large interconnected multi-area system is necessitated by the importance of maintenance of frequency and tie-line flows at their scheduled values. Disturbance in any part of the power system network has its effect on the frequency and tie-line power flows of the entire network. Thus, It is the responsibility of the Power system engineers to ensure that adequate power is delivered to the load reliably and economically so that nominal condition will be re-established. This Research paper aims to represents how nominal value can be achieved by close loop control of real and reactive powers generated in the controllable source of the system with the help of conventional controllers.
Impact Analysis of Recent DDoS Attacks
Ketki Arora,Krishan Kumar,,Monika Sachdeva
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: In the present era Internet has changed the way of traditional essential services such as banking, transportation, power, health, and defence being operated. These operations are being replacedby cheaper, more efficient Internet-based applications. It is all because of rapid growth and success of Internet in every sector. Unfortunately with the growth of Internet, count of attacks on Internet has also increased incredibly fast. Denial-of-service attack is one of them, which poses immense threat on the availability. Since, the World is highly dependent on the Internet, availability of the Internet is very critical for the socio-economic growth of the society. Denial-of-service attacks occur almost every day,and the frequency and the volume of these attacks are increasing day by day. One of the biggest challenges before researchers is to find the details of such attacks because due to damaging reputationissues, most of the commercial sites do not even disclose that they were blitzed by such attacks. Details of attacks can guide very well in the formulation of comprehensive defensive solution for such attacks. In this paper, an overview on DDoS problem, major factors causing DDoS attacks are demonstrated, brief detail of most recent DDoS incidents on online organizations is outlined and finally, the need for a comprehensive distributed solution is highlighted.
The Use of Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm Based Approach to Create Ensemble of ANN for Intrusion Detection  [PDF]
Gulshan Kumar, Krishan Kumar
International Journal of Intelligence Science (IJIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2012.224016
Abstract: Due to our increased dependence on Internet and growing number of intrusion incidents, building effective intrusion detection systems are essential for protecting Internet resources and yet it is a great challenge. In literature, many researchers utilized Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in supervised learning based intrusion detection successfully. Here, ANN maps the network traffic into predefined classes i.e. normal or specific attack type based upon training from label dataset. However, for ANN-based IDS, detection rate (DR) and false positive rate (FPR) are still needed to be improved. In this study, we propose an ensemble approach, called MANNE, for ANN-based IDS that evolves ANNs by Multi Objective Genetic algorithm to solve the problem. It helps IDS to achieve high DR, less FPR and in turn high intrusion detection capability. The procedure of MANNE is as follows: firstly, a Pareto front consisting of a set of non-dominated ANN solutions is created using MOGA, which formulates the base classifiers. Subsequently, based upon this pool of non-dominated ANN solutions as base classifiers, another Pareto front consisting of a set of non-dominated ensembles is created which exhibits classification tradeoffs. Finally, prediction aggregation is done to get final ensemble prediction from predictions of base classifiers. Experimental results on the KDD CUP 1999 dataset show that our proposed ensemble approach, MANNE, outperforms ANN trained by Back Propagation and its ensembles using bagging & boosting methods in terms of defined performance metrics. We also compared our approach with other well-known methods such as decision tree and its ensembles using bagging & boosting methods.
Artificial Equilibrium Points in the Low-Thrust Restricted Three-Body Problem When Both the Primaries Are Oblate Spheroids  [PDF]
Amit Mittal, Krishan Pal
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2018.84028
Abstract: This paper studies the existence and stability of the artificial equilibrium points (AEPs) in the low-thrust restricted three-body problem when both the primaries are oblate spheroids. The artificial equilibrium points (AEPs) are generated by canceling the gravitational and centrifugal forces with continuous low-thrust at a non-equilibrium point. Some graphical investigations are shown for the effects of the relative parameters which characterized the locations of the AEPs. Also, the numerical values of AEPs have been calculated. The positions of these AEPs will depend not only also on magnitude and directions of low-thrust acceleration. The linear stability of the AEPs has been investigated. We have determined the stability regions in the xy, xz and yz-planes and studied the effect of oblateness parameters A1(0<A1<1)?and A2(0<A2<1) on the motion of the spacecraft. We have found that the stability regions reduce around both the primaries for the increasing values of oblateness of the primaries. Finally, we have plotted the zero velocity curves to determine the possible regions of motion of the spacecraft.
Efficacy of Slow Reversal Hold and Isometrics in Improving Muscle Strength, Increasing Range of Motion, and Reducing Pain in Patients with Osteoarthritis of Knee  [PDF]
Harneet Arora
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.105043
Abstract: Osteoarthritis of knee is a common problem in the elderly population worldwide. Physical therapy has been shown to be useful in decreasing pain and increasing mobility in this population. The aim of this study was to study the effectiveness of slow reversal hold and isometric exercise techniques in reducing pain, increasing muscle strength, and increasing range of motion for knee flexion in patients with osteoarthritis of knee. The other aim of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of these two interventions. 60 subjects participated in this study and were randomly assigned either to the slow reversal hold group (n = 30) or, to the isometrics exercise group (n = 30). All subjects performed their respective exercises for 3 weeks. Pain scores using the visual analog scale, muscle strength using manual muscle testing of quadriceps and hamstrings, and range of motion (ROM) for knee flexion using a goniometer were recorded both pre-treatment and post-treatment for both left and right knees. Both the interventions showed a significant decrease in pain scores, an increase in muscle strength, as well as an increase in the ROM. However, ROM was significantly increased in the slow reversal hold group as compared to the isometrics group in both knees. It was concluded that both exercise techniques could be useful in patients with osteoarthritis of knee for decreasing pain and increasing muscle strength. Slow reversal hold technique might be a better technique than isometrics for increasing ROM for knee flexion.
Effect of Altitude, Right Ascension of Ascending Node and Inclination on Lifetime of Circular Lunar Orbits  [PDF]
Shraddha Gupta, Ram Krishan Sharma
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2011.13020
Abstract: The lifetime of a lunar satellite orbit is constrained by the non-spherical nature of the Moon’s gravity field. The orbital lifetime of lunar orbits depends significantly on the initial conditions of the orbit. Right ascension of ascending node (Ω) is one of the important orbital parameter affecting the orbital lifetime. In the present work we have analyzed the effect of Ω on the variation of lifetime with altitude for circular lunar orbits. It is found that at a particular initial altitude, a small increase in the altitude results in substantial increase in the orbital lifetime due to effect of the long periodic terms of Earth’s gravity on eccentricity and this transition altitude is different for different Ω. Further, it is observed that the variation of transition altitude with Ω follows a definite, but different trend for orbits with different inclinations. The transition altitude for polar orbits is found to be higher without the effect of Sun and Earth gravity. Variation of transition altitude with orbital inclination is also analyzed. Lifetimes of high altitude circular lunar orbits are analyzed and it is observed that at high altitudes lifetime decreases with altitude.
Halo Orbits around Sun-Earth L1 in Photogravitational Restricted Three-Body Problem with Oblateness of Smaller Primary  [PDF]
Prithiviraj Chidambararaj, Ram Krishan Sharma
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2016.63025
Abstract: This paper deals with generation of halo orbits in the three-dimensional photogravitational restricted three-body problem, where the more massive primary is considered as the source of radiation and the smaller primary is an oblate spheroid with its equatorial plane coincident with the plane of motion. Both the terms due to oblateness of the smaller primary are considered. Numerical as well as analytical solutions are obtained around the Lagrangian point L1, which lies between the primaries, of the Sun-Earth system. A comparison with the real time flight data of SOHO mission is made. Inclusion of oblateness of the smaller primary can improve the accuracy. Due to the effect of radiation pressure and oblateness, the size and the orbital period of the halo orbit around L1 are found to increase.
Oblateness Effect of Saturn on Halo Orbits of L1 and L2 in Saturn-Satellites Restricted Three-Body Problem  [PDF]
Nishanth Pushparaj, Ram Krishan Sharma
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2016.64029
Abstract: The Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem (CRTBP) with more massive primary as an oblate spheroid with its equatorial plane coincident with the plane of motion of the primaries is considered to generate the halo orbits around L1 and L2 for the seven satellites (Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Titan and Iapetus) of Saturn in the frame work of CRTBP. It is found that the oblateness effect of Saturn on the halo orbits of the satellites closer to Saturn has significant effect compared to the satellites away from it. The halo orbits L1 and L2 are found to move towards Saturn with oblateness.
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