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Plant protease inhibitors in control of phytophagous insects
Lawrence,Paulraj K.; Koundal,Kripa Ram;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2002,
Abstract: plant proteinase inhibitors (pis) have been well established to play a potent defensive role against predators and pathogens. although diverse endogenous functions for these proteins has been proposed, ranging from regulators of endogenous proteinases to act as storage proteins, evidence for many of these roles is partial, or confined to isolated examples. on the other hand, many pis have been shown to act as defensive compounds against pests by direct assay or by expression in transgenic crop plants, and a body of evidence for their role in plant defense has been accumulated consistently. the role and mechanism of action for most of these inhibitors are being studied in detail and their respective genes isolated. these genes have been used for the construction of transgenic crop plants to be incorporated in integrated pest management programmes. this article describes the classes of protease inhibitors, their regulation and genes used to construct transgenic plants against phytophagous insects.
Sticking around: an up-close look at drop adhesion
Adam T. Paxson,Kripa K. Varanasi
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: We present a fluid dynamics video showing the adhesion of a drop to a superhydrophobic surface. We use environmental scanning electron microscopy to observe depinning events at the microscale. As the drop moves along the surface, the advancing portion of the contact line simply lies down onto the upcoming roughness features, contributing negligibly to adhesion. After measuring the local receding contact angle of capillary bridges formed on a micropillar array, we find that these depinning events follow the Gibbs depinning criterion. We further extend this technique to two-scale hierarchical structures to reveal a self-similar depinning mechanism in which the adhesion of the entire drop depends only on the pinning at the very smallest level of roughness hierarchy. With this self-similar depinning mechanism we develop a model to predict the adhesion of drops to superhydrophobic surfaces that explains both the low adhesion on sparsely structured surfaces and the surprisingly high adhesion on surfaces whose features are densely spaced or tortuously shaped.
Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Amylase Inhibitory Effect of the Leaves of Breynia retusa
K.G. Kripa,R. Sangeetha,P. Madhavi,P. Deepthi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: This study was proposed based on the folklore claim and on the scarcity of scientific evidence from the literature for the medicinal uses of Breynia retusa. The aim of the present study was to analyse the phytochemical constituents of the leaves of B. retusa. The fractions obtained by successive fractionation using solvents of varying polarity were studied for the presence of primary and secondary metabolites and the total phenolic content of the different fractions were determined by HPLC. The results of the study support the traditional acclaim of the therapeutic uses of B. retusa. The potential of B. retusa to inhibit a-amylase, a prime enzyme involved in carbohydrate metabolism was analysed and it was observed that the ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of the leaves of B. retusa possessed in vitro amylase inhibitory activity.
Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of Leucas aspera (Willd.) link on inflammatory markers in complete freund′s adjuvant induced arthritic rats
Kripa K,Chamundeeswari D,Thanka J,Reddy C
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The plant Leucas aspera is claimed to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic potential by traditional practitioners. The aim of this study is to validate the traditional claim. The hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of L. aspera (HAELA) was orally tested at a dose of 100 mg/kg bodyweight for anti-arthritic effect in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. Group I rats served as vehicle control group [0.2% carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) p.o.]. The test groups were injected with 0.1 ml of complete Freund′s adjuvant into the subplantar region of right hind paw. Group II animals served as disease control, while the group III and group IV arthritic rats were treated with standard drug diclofenac sodium (0.3 mg/kg) and HAELA (100 mg/kg) for 21 days. Activities of inflammatory markers such as tumour necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, interleukin-2, cathepsin D and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) were estimated in plasma/haemolysate and tissue of control and arthritic animals. Histopathological analysis of knee joints was also performed. Statistical analysis of the biochemical parameters was performed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS software package. Results were expressed as mean±SEM for six rats in each group. P<0.05 was considered to be significant. HAELA showed significant anti-inflammatory (P<0.001) and antioxidant activity (P<0.001) at the specified dose. It did not show mortality up to 2000 mg/kg body weight. Histopathological studies confirmed cartilage regeneration and near normal joint in HAELA treated rats. It can thus be concluded that HAELA possesses significant antioxidant and anti-arthritic potential.
Elevated Frequencies of Micronuclei and other Nuclear Abnormalities of Chrome Plating Workers Occupationally Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium
Sudha S,Kripa S K,Shibily P,Shyn J
Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium by using micronuclei (MN) as a biomarker. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and all participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from Coimbatore, Southern India. Exfoliated buccal cells from 44 chrome plating workers and 40 age and sex matched control subjects were examined for MN frequency and nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, broken eggs, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and pyknosis. Results: Results showed statistically significant difference between chrome plating workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in chrome plating workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05) and also significantly related to smoking habit (P < 0.05). A significant difference in NA was observed in workers exposed to chromium for longer duration. In addition to this, a higher degree of NA was observed among smokers.Conclusion: MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore the results of this study indicate that chrome plating workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, there is a need to educate those who work with heavy metals about the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures.
Insulin resistance and its relation to inflammatory status and serum lipids among young women with PCOS
Asmathulla S,Rupa Vani K,Kripa S,Rajarajeswari R
International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/2320-1770.ijrcog20130913
Abstract: Background: The incidence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is increasing among young women. PCOS women have decreased insulin sensitivity independent of body mass index with increase in lipid levels. Studies on measuring inflammatory status in PCOS showed varying results. The inter-relationship between inflammatory status, insulin resistance and lipid levels among PCOS women was studied. Methods: Twenty PCOS women and 20 healthy controls of age 18-25 years were recruited. Fasting blood samples were collected for estimation of serum glucose, insulin levels, lipid levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. Insulin resistance was determined by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) index. Results: PCOS women had significant increase in fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and triglycerides compared to healthy controls. HOMA-IR was positively associated with serum triglycerides, VLDL levels and CRP levels among PCOS subjects. Total Cholesterol was positively associated with CRP. Regression analysis showed HOMA-IR as a sole parameter strongly linked with PCOS women. This indicates that, IR is an independent pathogenic variable linked with PCOS which in turn showed positive association with CRP and triglycerides. Conclusion: IR is the hallmark of PCOS among young adolescent women. IR is associated with elevated CRP and triglyceride levels. Taking measures to increase insulin sensitivity, may help in altering dyslipidemia and inflammatory status, thereby reducing CVD risk among young women with PCOS. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000): 325-329]
Low-Dimensional Conduction Mechanisms in Highly Conductive and Transparent Conjugated Polymers
Asli Ugur,Ferhat Katmis,Mingda Li,Lijun Wu,Yimei Zhu,Kripa K. Varanasi,Karen K. Gleason
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502340
Abstract: Electronic conduction in conjugated polymers is of emerging technological interest for high-performance optoelectronic and thermoelectric devices. A completely new aspect and understanding of the conduction mechanism on conducting polymers is introduced, allowing the applicability of materials to be optimized. The charge-transport mechanism is explained by direct experimental evidence with a very well supported theoretical model.
Instabilities by ionic bombardment
Seyed Reza Mahmoudi,Sushant Anand,Kazimierz Adamiak,G. S. Peter Castle,Kripa K. Varanasi
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: This fluid dynamics video is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 66th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD. This work reveals new types of interfacial instabilities that occur during forced-spreading of dielectric films subjected to ionic bombardment. We demonstrated that keeping the ionic bombardment strength constant, the appearance of instability patterns dramatically changes by varying viscosity of the bombarded droplet.
Preferential Condensation of water droplets using hybrid hydrophobic-hydrophilic surfaces
Adam T. Paxson,Kripa K. Varanasi,Tao Deng,Ming Hsu,Nitin Bhate
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We present a hybrid microtextured surface with heterogeneous hydrophilic-hydrophobic regions for condensing water vapor while maintaining anti-wetting behavior. Fluid dynamics videos are shown demonstrating the difference between condensation on a homogeneous hydrophobic structure and the same structure with hybrid wetting regions.
Deceleration Driven Wetting Transition During "Gentle" Drop Deposition
Hyuk-Min Kwon,Adam T. Paxson,Kripa K. Varanasi,Neelesh A. Patankar
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We present high speed video of Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel drop transition during gentle deposition of droplets where the modest amount of energy is channeled via rapid deceleration into a high water hammer pressure.
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