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Diuretic activity of extracts of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark
Koti Basavaraj,Ashok Purnima
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: In the present study, petroleum ether, chloroform, and alcoholic extracts of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark (200 mg/kg body weight, p. o.) were tested for diuretic activity. The animals were grouped into five of six animals each. The first group received only 0.9% sodium chloride solution (25 ml/kg body weight) and the second group received the standard drug furosemide (20 mg/kg body weight) in 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Rest of the three groups received each of extracts viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, and alcohol of M. elengi bark in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight suspended in 0.9% sodium chloride solution (p. o). After oral administration, urine was collected and volume was recorded at 5 hours. The highest diuretic activity was presented by the alcoholic extract. Diuretic activity was not observed in chloroform and petroleum ether extracts. We observed a potent diuretic and electrolyte excretion activity in alcoholic extract of M. elengi bark.
Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of Mimusops elengi on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats
Ashok Purnima,Koti Basavaraj,Vishwanathswamy A.H.M.
Indian Journal of Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the potential of Mimusops elengi in the treatment of renal calculi. Materials and Methods: Petroleum ether, chloroform, and alcohol extracts of Mimusops elengi bark were evaluated for antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity in male albino Wistar rats. Ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water was fed to all the groups (Groups II-IX) except normal control (Group I) for 28 days to induce urolithiasis for curative (CR) and preventive (PR) regimen. Groups IV, V, and VI served as CR, and groups VII, VIII, and IX as PR were treated with different extracts of M. elengi bark. Groups I, II, and III served as normal control, positive control (hyperurolithiatic), and standard (cystone 750 mg/kg), respectively. Oxalate, calcium, and phosphate were monitored in the urine and kidney. Serum BUN, creatinine, and uric acid were also recorded. In vivo antioxidant parameters such as lipid peroxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were also monitored. Results: All the extracts of M. elengi were safe orally and exhibited no gross behavioral changes in the rats. In hypercalculi animals, the oxalate, calcium, and phosphate excretion grossly increased. However, the increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats were significantly (P < 0.001) lowered by curative and preventive treatment with alcohol extract (AlE) of M. elengi. It was also observed that alcoholic extract of M. elengi produced significant (P < 0.001) decrease in MDA, and increased GSH, SOD, and CAT. These results confirm that AlE of M. elengi possess potent antiurolithiatic activity. Conclusion: The results obtained suggest potential usefulness of the AlE of M. elengi bark as an antiurolithiatic agent.
New Tests for Assessing Non-Inferiority and Equivalence from Survival Data  [PDF]
Kallappa M. Koti
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2013.32008
Abstract:

We propose a new nonparametric method for assessing non-inferiority of an experimental therapy compared to a standard of care. The ratio μE/μR of true median survival times is the parameter of interest. This is of considerable interest in clinical trials of generic drugs. We think of the ratio mE/mR of the sample medians as a point estimate of the ratioμE/μR. We use the Fieller-Hinkley distribution of the ratio of two normally distributed random variables to derive an unbiased level-α test of inferiority null hypothesis, which is stated in terms of the ratio μE/μR and a pre-specified fixed non-inferiority margin δ. We also explain how to assess equivalence and non-inferiority using bootstrap equivalent confidence intervals on the ratioμE/μR.

AUTO GENERATION OF EMBEDDED C CODE FROM TRANSFER FUNCTION
Koti Mudela
International Journal of Soft Computing & Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: Nowadays the implementation of control systems in the embedded world is becoming more prevalent. All the processes handled by the control systems are performed by the designed embedded controllers. The continuous or analogue control systems are converted to discrete control systems because discrete control systems can perform logical manipulation and complex mathematical computations by using appropriate programming techniques.
Papillon - lefevre syndrome
Basavaraj K
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1994,
Abstract: A case of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome is reported in a six years old boy. He had early loss of deciduous teeth with periodontosis, palmoplantar keratoderma extending on to the pressure points of the body, hepatosplenomegaly and congenital hydrocele.
Potential Benefits of Flaxseed in Health and Disease - A Perspective
Basavaraj Madhusudhan
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (ACS) , 2009,
Abstract: Flaxseed has been known since the Stone Ages. Originating in Mesopotamia, it has long history of use in India and was a commonly used food before World War II. Flaxseed cultivation and popularity declined after the fall of Rome and gradually forgotten until 1990s. Flaxseed oil, lignan precursors and its mucilage have many potential uses in the prevention or treatment of disease as a nutraceutical (drug). Due to several health benefits dietary flaxseed is a valuable strategy to limit several life-style diseases including hormone-responsive tumor, cholesterol-induced atherogenesis as well as abnormalities in endothelialdependent vasorelaxation. As this insightful rediscovery shows, current nutritional understanding provides an excellent opportunity to reintroduce this important food to the world.
Diuretic activity of extracts of Centratherum anthelminticum
Koti B,Purnima A
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2008,
Abstract: In the present study petroleum ether, chloroform and alcohol extracts of Centratherum anthelminticum (L.) Kuntze (family: Asteraceae) seeds (200 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) were tested for diuretic activity. The animals were grouped into five of six animals each. All the animals received priming dose of 0.9% sodium chloride solution (25 ml/kg b.w.). The first group served as control and the second group received the standard drug spiranolactone (20 mg/kg body weight) in 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The other three groups received petroleum ether, chloroform, and alcohol extracts of C. anthelminticum seeds in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight suspended in 0.9% sodium chloride solution (p.o.). Urine volume was recorded for all the groups for 5 h. The highest diuretic activity was presented by alcohol extract followed by that of chloroform, petroleum ether extract has no significant diuretic activity. Alcohol and chloroform extracts significantly decreased K+ excretion. We observed a potent diuretic and electrolyte excretion activity of chloroform and alcohol extracts of C. anthelminticum seeds. These findings suggest the possible traditional use of this plant in hypertension as diuretics are used in the management of hypertension.
Comparison of Obesity/Psychological Disorders Comorbid between Older and Younger Adult Women  [PDF]
Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi, Maryam Abolhasani, Maryam Bidadian, Leila Koti
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.411A001
Abstract:

Introduction: Epidemiologic data proposed a relationship between obesity and depression in older adults. We conducted this study to evaluate the association between obesity and depressive disorders, as well as a range of eating disorders in old women. Methods: From a total of 1477 clients referred to an outpatient clinic, 212 obese persons (97 persons 60+ and 115 persons 40 - 59 years of age) were enrolled. Data of demographics, comorbidities, anthropometrics, physical activity level, and diet, as well as, depressive and eating disorders were collected. Depressive and eating disorders were assessed using diagnostic structural interview based on DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder—fourth edition— Text version). BMI more than or equal to 30 was considered as obesity. Results: The prevalence of dysthymic disorder was significantly lower in older women compared to younger (p = 0.026). Comparable but not significant results were observed for major depression disorder, Bulimia Nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that obese older women were less likely to suffer from Comorbid dysthymic disorder/obesity compared to younger.

Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle Reflex as a Function of the Frequency Difference between Prepulse and Background Sounds in Mice
Sidhesh Basavaraj,Jun Yan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045123
Abstract: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) depicts the effects of a weak sound preceding strong acoustic stimulus on acoustic startle response (ASR). Previous studies suggest that PPI is influenced by physical parameters of prepulse sound such as intensity and preceding time. The present study characterizes the impact of prepulse tone frequency on PPI.
LABOUR INCENTIVE SCHEMES IN SSI SECTOR: A CASE STUDY
BASAVARAJ B. PATIL
Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: Incentive schemes act as external stimuli. They induce workers to excel and earn more than the normal wages. Therefore, well-drafted incentive schemes bring gains to all, i.e., both to the employers and employees. These schemes have universal application, in the sense that they can be applied in all forms of business organizations, be it big or small, high-tech or labour-intensive, etc., though the structure and complexities of the schemes may vary from a small enterprise to a big enterprise.The present research paper aims to evaluate the labour incentive plans of SSI sector in a selected area. The SSI units are labour-intensive and provide gainful employment to lakhs of low-educated, unskilled and semi-skilled workers. The operational efficiency of these units depend on the efficiency rate of their employees. In view of this, incentive schemes become essential. The study looks at the existence, structure and cost of incentive schemes in Hubli-Dharwad area of Karnataka State. The study finds that incentives schemes are yet to make serious inroads into SSI sector and only 68 percent of surveyed units employ them. The schemes employed are simple, monetary and individual-oriented in nature. The cost of incentive schemes does not exceed 5 percent of total labour cost in majority of units employing such schemes. The study also finds that there is no statistical relationship between educational qualification level of entrepreneurs and the adoption of incentive schemes but the educational level becomes important in deciding the structure of incentive schemes. The study concludes by providing some useful suggestions for the adoption and operation of incentive schemes in SSI sector.
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