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Hypoparathyroidism in an Egyptian child with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: a case report
Kotb Kalil, Hekma Fargalley
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-6-17
Abstract: A 10-year-old Egyptian boy was referred to our institution for an evaluation of recurrent attacks of muscle cramps, paresthesia of his fingertips and perioral numbness of two months duration. On examination, we found dilated veins present over his scalp with alopecia and frontal bossing, a beaked nose, thin lips, protruding ears, a high pitched voice with sparse hair over his eyebrows and eyelashes and micrognathia but normal dentition. His eyes appeared prominent and our patient appeared to have poor sexual development. A provisional diagnosis of progeria was made, which was confirmed by molecular genetics study. Chvostek's and Trousseau's signs were positive. He had low total calcium (5.4 mg/dL), low ionized calcium (2.3 mg/dL), raised serum phosphate (7.2 mg/dL), raised alkaline phosphatase (118 U/L) and low intact parathyroid hormone (1.2 pg/mL) levels. He was started on oral calcium salt and vitamin D; his symptoms improved with the treatment and his serum calcium, urinary calcium and alkaline phosphates level were monitored every three months to ensure adequacy of therapy and to avoid hypercalcemia.Routine checking of serum calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone will help in the early detection of hypoparathyrodism among children with progeria.Progeria is a rare combination of dwarfism and premature aging characterized by thin, atrophic shiny skin with sclerodermoid changes, sparse to absent hair of the scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes, craniofacial disproportion, a sculpted beaked nose, short stature, a pyriform thorax, thin limbs and musculoskeletal and cardiovascular manifestations [1]. The classic form is known as Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome. It occurs sporadically, with a reported incidence of one in eight million births and male predominance with male to female ratio of 1.5:1 [2]. Hypoparathyroidism is an inherited or acquired deficiency of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) or its action [3]. Hypoparathyroidism occurs in all age groups. The classic clinica
Holoprosencephaly in an Egyptian baby with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome: a case report
Kotb Metwalley Kalil, Hekma Fargalley
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-6-35
Abstract: An 11-month-old Egyptian female baby was referred to our institution for an evaluation of poor growth; the pregnancy and perinatal history were uneventful. On examination, her growth parameters were below the third centile, she had bilateral ectrodactyly of both hands and feet, dry rough skin, sparse hair of the scalp and operated right cleft lip and cleft palate. Computerized tomography of her brain revealed holoprosencephaly.The importance of the early diagnosis of this syndrome should be emphasized in order to implement a multidisciplinary approach for proper management of such cases.Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip or palate syndrome (EEC syndrome) (OMIM No. 129900) is characterized by the triad of ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and facial clefting (lip and/or palate). It is a complex, pleiotropic, multiple congenital anomaly or dysplasia in which any of the three cardinal signs can present with variable expression. It may also be associated with many defects not necessarily of ectodermal origin [1]. EEC is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait of low penetrance and variable expressivity. Sporadic cases have also been reported. It was first described by Cockayne in 1936 [2]. The simultaneous presence of these three anomalies is extremely rare, with an estimated incidence of 1.5 per hundred million births [3]. Holoprosencephaly (HPE) represents congenital malformations of the developing forebrain. The combination of EEC syndrome and HPE is very rare, with only 15 cases known to date in the English literature [4]. The true prevalence of EEC syndrome with HPE in Egypt is unknown. A case seen in our institution necessitated a literature review and report.An 11-month-old Egyptian female baby was referred to our institution for an evaluation of poor growth. She was the first child of healthy and unrelated Egyptian parents. The pregnancy was normal and there was no history of hyperthermia, hypertension, diabetes or exposure to toxic, traumatic or infe
Magnetized Water and Memory Meter  [PDF]
Ashraf Kotb
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.56045
Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study to investigate the effect of using the magnetic water conditioner on the properties of water. The water flows through a closed loop, while the pH, TDS, and hardness represent its properties. For magnetic water conditioner with flux density of 170 mT, results showed that pH increased by 15.65% for 820 minutes of non-stop circulation. The increase in pH is divided to 93.5% for the first 360 minutes, and 6.5% for the last 460 minutes. TDS and Hardness of water are not affected by the magnetic water conditioner. Water remembers and keeps the impact of passing through the magnetic field for several hours, and pH decreased by 0.642 in24 hours. While the results lead to introduce and create the magnetized water saturation curve and water memory meter.
Multi-Item EOQ Model with Both Demand-Dependent Unit Cost and Varying Leading Time via Geometric Programming  [PDF]
Kotb A. M. Kotb, Hala A. Fergany
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.25072
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to derive the analytical solution of the EOQ model of multiple items with both demand-dependent unit cost and leading time using geometric programming approach. The varying purchase and leading time crashing costs are considered to be continuous functions of demand rate and leading time, respectively. The researchers deduce the optimal order quantity, the demand rate and the leading time as decision variables then the optimal total cost is obtained.
A Hybrid Optimization Technique Coupling an Evolutionary and a Local Search Algorithm for Economic Emission Load Dispatch Problem  [PDF]
A. A. Mousa, Kotb A. Kotb
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.27119
Abstract: This paper presents an optimization technique coupling two optimization techniques for solving Economic Emission Load Dispatch Optimization Problem EELD. The proposed approach integrates the merits of both genetic algorithm (GA) and local search (LS), where it maintains a finite-sized archive of non-dominated solutions which gets iteratively updated in the presence of new solutions based on the concept of ε-dominance. To improve the solution quality, local search technique was applied as neighborhood search engine, where it intends to explore the less-crowded area in the current archive to possibly obtain more non-dominated solutions. TOPSIS technique can incorporate relative weights of criterion importance, which has been implemented to identify best compromise solution, which will satisfy the different goals to some extent. Several optimization runs of the proposed approach are carried out on the standard IEEE 30-bus 6-genrator test system. The comparison demonstrates the superiority of the proposed approach and confirms its potential to solve the multiobjective EELD problem.
Cavitation Detection in Variable Speed Pump by Analyzing the Acoustic and Vibration Spectrums  [PDF]
Ashraf Kotb, Abdulaziz Morgan Abdulaziz
Engineering (ENG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2015.710062
Abstract: Cavitation in pumps must be detected and prevented. The present work is an attempt to use the simultaneous measurements of vibration and sound for variable speed pump to detect cavitation. It is an attempt to declare the relationship between the vibration and sound for the same discharge of 780 L/h and NPSHA of 0.754 at variable speeds of 1476 rpm, 1644 rpm, 1932 rpm, 2190 rpm, 2466 rpm, and 2682 rpm. Results showed that: the occurrence of cavitation depends on the rotational speed, and the sound signals in both no cavitation and cavitation conditions appear in random manner. While, surveying the vibration and sound spectrums at the second, third, and fourth blade passing frequencies reveals no indications or phenomenon associated with the cavitation at variable speeds. It is recommended to survey the vibration spectra at the rotational and blade passing frequencies simultaneously as a detection unique method of cavitation.
Investigating the Validity of Acoustic Spectrum as a Prediction Tool for Pump Cavitation  [PDF]
Ashraf Kotb, Abdulaziz Morgan Abdulaziz
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2015.713054
Abstract: Cavitation in pumps causes destructive consequences; it must be detected and prevented. The aim of the present work is investigating the validity of sound spectrum as a prediction tool for pump cavitation. Results showed that; for the discrete frequencies of RF = 47.5 Hz, and BPF = 285 Hz and its second, third, and fourth harmonics of 570 Hz, 855 Hz, and 1140 Hz respectively; there are no great variations in the noise signal for the cavitation and non-cavitation conditions. For the discrete frequency of 147 Hz, there is also no great variation in the noise signal at this frequency. The only apparent result is that; the occurrence of cavitation results high energy noise signals at high frequencies from 1000 Hz to 10000 Hz. The absence of any discrete frequency to be monitored makes the sound spectrum not valid as a prediction tool for cavitation in the pumps.
Performance of All-Optical XNOR Gate Based on Two-Photon Absorption in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers
Amer Kotb
Advances in Optical Technologies , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/754713
Abstract: All-optical logic XNOR gate is realized by a series combination of XOR and INVERT gates. This Boolean function is realized by using Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) and exploiting the nonlinear effect of two-photon absorption (TPA) in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). The employed model takes into account the impact of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), input pulse energy, pulsewidth, SOAs carrier lifetime, and linewidth enhancement factor (α-factor) on the gate’s output quality factor (Q-factor). The outcome of this study shows that the all-optical XNOR gate is indeed feasible with the proposed scheme at 250?Gb/s with both logical correctness and acceptable quality. 1. Introduction The development of all-optical logic technology is important for a wide range of applications in all optical networks, including high speed all-optical packet routing and optical encryption [1]. An important step in the development of all-optical logic technology, which includes key functionalities in fundamental and system-oriented level such as buffering, demultiplexing, clock recovery, packet processing, wavelength conversion, data regeneration, and optical encryption/decryption, is the demonstration of optical logic elements that can operate at ultrahigh speeds. All-optical logic gates based on several different schemes have been demonstrated and reported, including that based on dual semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) [2, 3], semiconductor laser amplifier loop mirror (SLALM) [4], ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (UNI) [5], four-wave mixing (FWM) process in SOA [6], or cross-gain modulation (XGM) or cross-phase modulation (XPM) in nonlinear devices [7]. All-optical logic XNOR gate using SOA is described and demonstrated earlier [8–13]. However the main limitation imposed on most of these schemes is that they cannot keep conveniently pace with the upgrades of single channel data rates in the effort to satisfy the unceasing bandwidth demand [14]. Thus in this work, we propose to address this critical issue by exploiting two-photon absorption (TPA) in SOAs, which are placed in the two arms of MZI operated in probe-dual pump mode. According to relevant pump-probe experiments, when a data modulated pump beam of appropriate intensity is launched into a SOA, the phase induced through TPA on a weak probe signal can change as fast as 1?ps, which subsequently can enable ultrafast interferometric switching of the same order [15]. Pump-probe experiments have shown that phase change takes place in duration ~1?ps or less when the
Molecular Mechanisms of Ursodeoxycholic Acid Toxicity & Side Effects: Ursodeoxycholic Acid Freezes Regeneration & Induces Hibernation Mode
Magd A. Kotb
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms13078882
Abstract: Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a steroid bile acid approved for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). UDCA is reported to have “hepato-protective properties”. Yet, UDCA has “unanticipated” toxicity, pronounced by more than double number of deaths, and eligibility for liver transplantation compared to the control group in 28 mg/kg/day in primary sclerosing cholangitis, necessitating trial halt in North America. UDCA is associated with increase in hepatocellular carcinoma in PBC especially when it fails to achieve biochemical response (10 and 15 years incidence of 9% and 20% respectively). “Unanticipated” UDCA toxicity includes hepatitis, pruritus, cholangitis, ascites, vanishing bile duct syndrome, liver cell failure, death, severe watery diarrhea, pneumonia, dysuria, immune-suppression, mutagenic effects and withdrawal syndrome upon sudden halt. UDCA inhibits DNA repair, co-enzyme A, cyclic AMP, p53, phagocytosis, and inhibits induction of nitric oxide synthatase. It is genotoxic, exerts aneugenic activity, and arrests apoptosis even after cellular phosphatidylserine externalization. UDCA toxicity is related to its interference with drug detoxification, being hydrophilic and anti-apoptotic, has a long half-life, has transcriptional mutational abilities, down-regulates cellular functions, has a very narrow difference between the recommended (13 mg/kg/day) and toxic dose (28 mg/kg/day), and it typically transforms into lithocholic acid that induces DNA strand breakage, it is uniquely co-mutagenic, and promotes cell transformation. UDCA beyond PBC is unjustified.
Quality Control for Multi-Item EOQ Model with Varying Leading Time
Kotb K. A. M.
International Journal of Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Sciences , 2013,
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