Abstract:
In this paper we review the recent developments in the relativistic theory of stellar pulsations with special emphasis on the spacetime or w-modes. We discuss also the excitation of these modes and the information about the neutron star that we will be able to mine from their detection. The paper will appear in the Proceedings of the Les Houches School on Astrophysical Sources of Gravitational Radiation, 1995, edited by J.-A. Marck and J.-P. Lasota to be published by Springer-Verlag.

Abstract:
As several large scale interferometers are beginning to take data at sensitivities where astrophysical sources are predicted, the direct detection of gravitational waves may well be imminent. This would open the gravitational-wave window to our Universe, and should lead to a much improved understanding of the most violent processes imaginable; the formation of black holes and neutron stars following core collapse supernovae and the merger of compact objects at the end of binary inspiral.

Abstract:
Sources of high frequency gravitational waves are reviewed. Gravitational collapse, rotational instabilities and oscillations of the remnant compact objects are potentially important sources of gravitational waves. Significant and unique information for the various stages of the collapse, the evolution of protoneutron stars and the details of the equations of state of such objects can be drawn from careful study of the gravitational wave signal.

Abstract:
We study the g-modes of fast rotating stratified neutron stars in the general relativistic Cowling approximation, where we neglect metric perturbations and where the background models take into account the buoyant force due to composition gradients. This is the first paper studying this problem in a general relativistic framework. In a recent paper by Passamonti et al.(2009), a similar study was performed within the Newtonian framework, where the authors presented results about the onset of CFS-unstable g-modes and the close connection between inertial- and gravity-modes for sufficiently high rotation rates and small composition gradients. This correlation arises from the interplay between the buoyant force which is the restoring force for g-modes and the Coriolis force which is responsible for the existence of inertial modes. In our relativistic treatment of the problem, we find an excellent qualitatively agreement with respect to the Newtonian results.

Abstract:
Tidal and tidal-resonant effects in coalescing compact binary systems are investigated by direct numerical integration of the equations of motion. For the stars polytropic models are used. The tidal effects are found to be dominated by the (non-resonant) $f$-modes. The effect of the $g$-mode-tidal resonances is obtained. The tidal interaction is shown to be of interest especially for low-mass binaries. There exists a characteristic final plunge orbit beyond which the system cannot remain stable even if radiation reaction is not taken into account; in agreement with results obtained by Lai et al. \shortcite{Lai93}. The importance of the investigated effects for the observation of gravitational waves on Earth is discussed.

Abstract:
We present new results for pulsating stars in general relativity. First we show that the so-called gravitational-wave modes of a neutron star can be excited when a gravitational wave impinges on the star. Numerical simulations suggest that the modes may be astrophysically relevant, and we discuss whether they will be observable with future gravitational-wave detectors. We also discuss how such observations could lead to estimates of both the radius and the mass of a neutron star, and thus put constraints on the nuclear equation of state.

Abstract:
Non-axisymmetric oscillations of rapidly rotating relativistic stars are studied using the Cowling approximation. The oscillation spectra have been estimated by Fourier transforming the evolution equations describing the perturbations. This is the first study of its kind and provides information on the effect of fast rotation on the oscillation spectra while it offers the possibility in studying the complete problem by including spacetime perturbations. Our study includes both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric perturbations and provides limits for the onset of the secular bar mode rotational instability. We also present approximate formulae for the dependence of the oscillation spectrum from rotation. The results suggest that it is possible to extract the relativistic star's parameters from the observed gravitational wave spectrum.

Abstract:
We investigate damping and growth times of the f-mode for rapidly rotating stars and a variety of different polytropic equations of state in the Cowling approximation. We discuss the differences in the eigenfunctions of co- and counterrotating modes and compute the damping times of the f-mode for several EoS and all rotation rates up to the Kepler-limit. This is the first study of the damping/growth time of this type of oscillations for fast rotating neutron stars in a general relativistic framework. We use these frequencies and damping/growth times to create robust empirical formulae which can be used for gravitational wave asteroseismology. The estimation of the damping/growth time is based on the quadrupole formula and our results agree very well with Newtonian ones in the appropriate limit.

Abstract:
This contribution is divided in two parts. The first part provides a text-book level introduction to gravitational radiation. The key concepts required for a discussion of gravitational-wave physics are introduced. In particular, the quadrupole formula is applied to the anticipated ``bread-and-butter'' source for detectors like LIGO, GEO600, EGO and TAMA300: inspiralling compact binaries. The second part provides a brief review of high frequency gravitational waves. In the frequency range above (say) 100Hz, gravitational collapse, rotational instabilities and oscillations of the remnant compact objects are potentially important sources of gravitational waves. Significant and unique information concerning the various stages of collapse, the evolution of protoneutron stars and the details of the supranuclear equation of state of such objects can be drawn from careful study of the gravitational-wave signal. As the amount of exciting physics one may be able to study via the detections of gravitational waves from these sources is truly inspiring, there is strong motivation for the development of future generations of ground based detectors sensitive in the range from hundreds of Hz to several kHz.

Abstract:
We present new results for pulsating neutron stars. We have calculated the eigenfrequencies of the modes that one would expect to be the most important gravitational-wave sources: the fundamental fluid f-mode, the first pressure p-mode and the first gravitational-wave w-mode, for twelve realistic equations of state. From this numerical data we have inferred a set of ``empirical relations'' between the mode-frequencies and the parameters of the star (the radius R and the mass M). Some of these relation prove to be surprisingly robust, and we show how they can be used to extract the details of the star (radius, mass, eos) from observed modes with errors no larger than a few percent.