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Short Retraction Notice
The paper does not meet the standards of \"Open Journal of Social Sciences\".
This article has been retracted to straighten the academic record. In making this decision the Editorial Board follows COPE's Retraction Guidelines. The aim is to promote the circulation of scientific research by offering an ideal research publication platform with due consideration of internationally accepted standards on publication ethics. The Editorial Board would like to extend its sincere apologies for any inconvenience this retraction may have caused.
Editor guiding this retraction: Prof. Aqueil Ahmad (EiC of JSS)
Please see the article page for more details. The full retraction notice in PDF is preceding the original paper, which is marked \"RETRACTED\".
The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn,
Cr, Fe, Cd and Mn) were determined in the organs of Rana esculenta (frog)
obtained from River Guma, Benue State of Nigeria using Atomic Absorption
Spectrophotometer. The analysis of the triplicate experiments showed that
the intestine contained the lowest concentration (25.9%) of all the heavy
metals detected, followed by the skin (30.5%), while the liver contained the
highest concentration (43.6%). In all the frog organs, Fe had the highest
concentration in the liver, followed by skin and lowest in the intestine. The
trend of the heavy metals concentration in the organs can be represented as: Fe
> Mn > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr > Cd. The concentrations of all
the metals in the liver, skin and intestine of the frog were found to be
statistically significant. Generally, the levels of Pb, Fe, Cr and Mn in all
the samples were analyzed above the tolerance limits by the WHO with exception
of Cd, Cu and Zn that were below the permissible limits in the samples.
This study compared characteristics
of Korean American men in two studies: a telephone survey with a random
sample of Korean American men who reported
daily smoking versus a smoking cessation clinical trial with a
convenience sample of Korean American men who reported smoking at least 10
cigarettes a day. Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), both studies
attempted to explain how much its theoretical
variables (attitudes, perceived social norms, and self-efficacy) would explain
quit intentions in Korean American men. Participants in the cessation study
were less likely to have health insurance coverage (χ2 [2, 271] = 138.31, p = 0.001) than
those in the survey study. The cessation group was more likely to smoke
in indoor offices (χ2 [1, 231] = 18.09, p = 0.003) and
had higher nicotine dependence than the survey group (t269 = 3.32, p =
0.001) but these differences became insignificant when only those who smoked 10 or more cigarettes were compared.
Participants in the cessation study had more positive attitudes towards