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Bimodal Solutions or Twice-Daily Icodextrin to Enhance Ultrafiltration in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
Periklis Dousdampanis,Konstantina Trigka,Joanne M. Bargman
International Journal of Nephrology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/424915
Bimodal Solutions or Twice-Daily Icodextrin to Enhance Ultrafiltration in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
Periklis Dousdampanis,Konstantina Trigka,Joanne M. Bargman
International Journal of Nephrology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/424915
Abstract: The efficacy and safety of icodextrin has been well established. In this paper, we will discuss the pharmacokinetics and biocompatibility of icodextrin and its clinical effect on fluid management in peritoneal dialysis patients. Novel strategies for its prescription for peritoneal dialysis patients with inadequate ultrafiltration are reviewed. 1. Introduction The use of icodextrin (ico) has been characterized as one of the major achievements in peritoneal dialysis (PD) [1]. Ico-based peritoneal dialysis solutions have been used successfully by PD practitioners for two decades. Ico is an isoosmolar alternative osmotic agent that induces ultrafiltration (UF) in peritoneal dialysis by colloid osmosis. Peritoneal absorption of ico is limited and occurs by convection via the lymphatics of the peritoneum [2]. As a result, the net pressure gradient is relatively constant, sustaining UF for the long dwell. Many clinical benefits of ico have been described, such as a reduction in total glucose load [3], equivalent or higher UF than that provided by hypertonic glucose solutions [4], and better control of fluid balance [5]. Ico is recommended for patients with poor UF and those with a high or high/high-average pattern in the peritoneal equilibrium test (PET). It is well known that UF volume correlates with patient and technique survival [6]. Glucose degradation products (GDPs) and the products of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) induce inflammation and fibrosis of the peritoneal membrane [7]. Minimizing dextrose exposure by using ico for the long dwell may prevent long-term detrimental changes of the peritoneal membrane. In addition, there is a growing concern about the total amount of absorbed glucose and so there is interest in the use of new alternative glucose-sparing osmotic agents. The use of a “bimodal” solution composed of glucose and ico, in order to increase sodium and fluid removal, is a promising approach [8]. Ico was used initially during the long night dwell in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and during the day dwell in continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). Recently, the daily use of two ico exchanges has been suggested in order to minimize the glucose load and/or to increase the UF rate [9–12]. The biocompatibility of ico has been investigated; however, it should be noted that there are data suggesting that those who use icodextrin are still vulnerable to develop encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) [13]. 2. Pharmacokinetics of Icodextrin Ico consists of a complex mixture of starch-derived water-soluble glucose
Assessment and Retrofit of the Bridge over Kouris River, Cyprus  [PDF]
Chrysanthos Maraveas, Konstantina Tasiouli
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2017.73023
Abstract: The main objective of the present study is the assessment and retrofit of an existing road bridge that is located in Cyprus over the river Kouris. In particular the study concerns in a road bridge with seven spans of 10.5 m + 5 * 12.6 m + 10.5 m, a cross section width of 7.10 m and a 5 m piers height that was constructed in the early 50’s. The structural system of the bridge comprises of cast in situ reinforced concrete T-beams and slab deck that is simply supported on masonry piers. According to the new urban plan to design the bridge should now accommodate two lanes per direction, a pedestrian walkway and a cycling lane with total cross section width of new deck 15.60 m. The deck of the bridge widened using for aesthetic reasons the same cross section type and the new T-Beams and slab deck connected monolithically to the existing one. The existing part of the deck was strengthened with reinforced concrete jacketing due to inadequacy in shear resistance. Major challenge of the project posed the existing masonry pier layout that was insufficient to carry the new design seismic forces. New piers, founded on piles, were designed adjacent to the existing piers in order to support the new widened part of the bridge, and also to bear all the horizontal loads arising from the masses of the total deck. Sliding bearings (free movement) placed in the part of the bridge over the existing piers and elastomeric bearings with movement only in the longitudinal direction placed in the new piers.
Real Hypersurfaces in CP2 and CH2 Equipped With Structure Jacobi Operator Satisfying Lξl =▽ξl  [PDF]
Konstantina Panagiotidou, Philippos J. Xenos
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2012.21001
Abstract: Recently in [1], Perez and Santos classified real hypersurfaces in complex projective space CPn for n ≥ 3, whose Lie derivative of structure Jacobi operator in the direction of the structure vector field coincides with the covariant derivative of it in the same direction. The present paper completes the investigation of this problem studying the case n = 2 in both complex projective and hyperbolic spaces.
European Governance After Lisbon and Portability of Supplementary Pension Rights
Konstantina Kalogeropoulou
Journal of Contemporary European Research , 2006,
A review of Web information seeking research: considerations of method and foci of interest
Konstantina Martzoukou
Information Research: an international electronic journal , 2005,
Abstract: Introduction. This review shows that Web information seeking research suffers from inconsistencies in method and a lack of homogeneity in research foci. Background. Qualitative and quantitative methods are needed to produce a comprehensive view of information seeking. Studies also recommend observation as one of the most fundamental ways of gaining direct knowledge of behaviour. User-centred research emphasises the importance of holistic approaches, which incorporate physical, cognitive, and affective elements. Problems. Comprehensive studies are limited; many approaches are problematic and a consistent methodological framework has not been developed. Research has often failed to ensure appropriate samples that ensure both quantitative validity and qualitative consistency. Typically, observation has been based on simulated rather than real information needs and most studies show little attempt to examine holistically different characteristics of users in the same research schema. Research also deals with various aspects of cognitive style and ability with variant definitions of expertise and different layers of user experience. Finally the effect of social and cultural elements has not been extensively investigated. Conclusion. The existing limitations in method and the plethora of different approaches allow little progress and fewer comparisons across studies. There is urgent need for establishing a theoretical framework on which future studies can be based so that information seeking behaviour can be more holistically understood, and results can be generalised.
Facilitating EFL Students with Learning Difficulties in Grade C of the Greek State Primary School
Konstantina Kotsi
Research Papers in Language Teaching and Learning , 2010,
Abstract: This study focuses on supporting 3rd grade pupils with Learning Difficulties in the Greek State Primary School and proposes an intervention plan for the EFL class. This intervention is considered to be not only beneficial but also effective since the teaching of English as a foreign language starts in the 3rd grade. A case study has been organized for this purpose focusing on four 3rd grade learners facing Learning Difficulties. The specific intervention plan is presented and evaluated according to the data collected during the implementation in the class. The findings of a survey, in the form of a questionnaire, conducted among teachers of English reveal that teachers of English lack the necessary theoretical background as well as the strategies to cope with the pupils with LD in the classroom situation. The appropriate training of teachers is therefore considered an imperative.
Continuous Time in Consistent Histories
Konstantina Savvidou
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We discuss the case of histories labelled by a continuous time parameter in the {\em History Projection Operator} consistent-histories quantum theory. We describe how the appropriate representation of the history algebra may be chosen by requiring the existence of projection operators that represent propositions about time averages of the energy. We define the action operator for the consistent histories formalism, as the quantum analogue of the classical action functional, for the simple harmonic oscillator case. We show that the action operator is the generator of two types of time transformations that may be related to the two laws of time-evolution of the standard quantum theory: the `state-vector reduction' and the unitary time-evolution. We construct the corresponding classical histories and demonstrate the relevance with the quantum histories; we demonstrate how the requirement of the temporal logic structure of the theory is sufficient for the definition of classical histories. Furthermore, we show the relation of the action operator to the decoherence functional which describes the dynamics of the system. Finally, the discussion is extended to give a preliminary account of quantum field theory in this approach to the consistent histories formalism.
The action operator for continuous-time histories
Konstantina Savvidou
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1063/1.533050
Abstract: We define the action operator in the consistent histories formalism, as the quantum analogue of the classical action functional, for the simple harmonic oscillator case. The action operator is shown to be the generator of time transformations, and to be associated with the two types of time-evolution of the standard quantum theory: the wave-packet reduction and the unitary time-evolution. We construct the corresponding classical histories and demonstrate the relevance with the quantum histories. Finally, we show the relation of the action operator to the decoherence functional.
Translation and Standardization of the Extended Influence Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-G) in a Greek Sample  [PDF]
Konstantina Tyrovola, Vicky Papanikolaou, Dimitrios Adamis
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.27115
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to translate in Greek the IBQ-G and investigate the validity and reliability of the Greek version. The Greek translation of IBQ-G has been given in a sample of employees in two public organizations at two different time points. A questionnaire which has been created for the purpose of this study also has been administered to assess similar influences behaviors. The convergent validity of the Greek version of IBQ-G was very good in both occasions. Similarly, examination of test-retest reliability with paired t-tests showed that most, but not all of the IBQ-G scales were stable across the time (p > 0.05). The Greek translated IBQ-G is a valid and reliable measurement. However, the stability over the time of all IBQ-G scales was not supported from this study. The Greek version of IBQ-G can be used for managerial, research, audit, and to facilitate multinational research.
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