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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 329606 matches for " Kolt Gregory S "
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Chronic disease and sitting time in middle-aged Australian males: findings from the 45 and Up Study
George Emma S,Rosenkranz Richard R,Kolt Gregory S
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-20
Abstract: Background Compared to females, males experience a range of health inequities including higher rates of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although sitting time is emerging as a distinct risk factor for chronic disease, research on the association of sitting time and chronic disease in middle-aged Australian males is limited. Methods A sample of 63,048 males aged 45-64 years was drawn from the baseline dataset of the 45 and Up Study – a longitudinal cohort study on healthy ageing with 267,153 participants from across New South Wales, Australia’s most populous state. Baseline data on self-reported chronic disease (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, combined chronic diseases), sitting time, physical activity (Active Australia Survey), and a range of covariates were used for cross-sectional analyses. Crude (OR), partially and fully adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using binary logistic regression. Results Compared to those sitting <4 hours/day, participants reporting 4 to <6, 6 to <8, and ≥8 hours were significantly more likely to report ever having any chronic disease (AOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00 – 1.12, p = 0.050; AOR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 – 1.16, p = 0.003; AOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 – 1.15, p = 0.002, respectively). Participants who reported 6 to <8 hours and ≥8 hours of sitting were also significantly more likely to report ever having diabetes than those reporting <4 hours/day (AOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.03 – 1.28, p = 0.016; AOR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09 – 1.33, p <0.001, respectively). Conclusions Our findings suggest that higher volumes of sitting time are significantly associated with diabetes and overall chronic disease, independent of physical activity and other potentially confounding factors. Prospective studies using valid and reliable measures into domain-specific sitting time in middle-aged males are required to understand and explain the direction of these relationships.
Physical activity behaviours of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) women living in Australia: A qualitative study of socio-cultural influences
Cristina M Caperchione, Gregory S Kolt, Rebeka Tennent, W Mummery
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-26
Abstract: Twelve focus group sessions were undertaken with CALD women (N = 110) from Bosnian, Arabic speaking, Filipino and Sudanese communities in three regions: New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland. In a semi-structured, open table discussion, participants were encouraged to share their opinions, perceptions and beliefs regarding socio-cultural influences on their physical activity behaviours. Common and ethnic-specific themes emerged from the discussions.Common themes included: knowledge of physical activity, differing physical activity levels, and the effects of psychological and socio-cultural factors, environmental factors, and perceptions of ill-health and injury, on physical activity behaviours. Ethnic-specific themes indicated that post-war trauma, religious beliefs and obligations, socio-economic status, social isolation and the acceptance of traditional cultural activities, greatly influenced the physical activity behaviours of Bosnian, Arabic speaking, Filipino and Sudanese women living in communities throughout Australia.This study demonstrates that attitudes and understandings of health and wellbeing are complex, and have a strong socio-cultural influence. The findings of the present study can be used not only to inform further health promotion initiatives, but also as a platform for further research with consumers of these services and with those who deliver such services.Australia has witnessed a rapid increase in migration over the past 10 years, with annual migrant numbers doubling as a proportion of the total population [1]. With the diversity of this growing population Australia faces a number of population health challenges. Close examination of epidemiological data reveals particular burdens of disease in women from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) communities now living throughout Australia [2]. Moreover, there is a consensus among western countries, including Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States and Canada, that signif
Effectiveness of Pilates exercise in treating people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews
Wells Cherie,Kolt Gregory S,Marshall Paul,Hill Bridget
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-13-7
Abstract: Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. Results A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. Conclusion There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. This is due to the small number and poor methodological quality of primary studies. The Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews provides a useful method of appraising the methodological quality of systematic reviews. Individual item scores, however, should be examined in addition to total scores, so that significant methodological flaws of systematic reviews are not missed, and results are interpreted appropriately. (348 words)
Examining Physical Activity Service Provision to Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Communities in Australia: A Qualitative Evaluation
Cristina M. Caperchione, Gregory S. Kolt, W. Kerry Mummery
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062777
Abstract: Strong evidence exists for the role of physical activity in preventing and managing a range of chronic health conditions. A particular challenge in promoting physical activity as a health strategy exists in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) groups, as such groups demonstrate high risk for a range of non-communicable diseases. The aim of this research was to examine the perspective of multicultural health service providers for CALD groups with respect to the physical activity services/initiatives on offer, access barriers to these services, and ideas for future service delivery in this area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 multicultural health service providers across the capital cities of the three most populous states in Australia (New South Wales, Queensland, and Victoria), and thematic content analysis was used to examine the data. Findings indicated that the majority of physical activity initiatives were associated with organizations offering other social services for CALD communities but were greatly restrained by resources. As well, it was found that most services were not designed by taking into account specific cultural requirements for CALD communities or their cultural expectations. Common barriers identified to service uptake were classified as socio-cultural (e.g., gender, language, context of health) and environmental (e.g., transportation) in nature. These findings should be utilized when planning future physical activity and health promotion initiatives for increasing CALD participation. In particular, programs need to be culturally tailored to the specific expectations of CALD groups, addressing cultural safety and sensitivity, and should be in partnership with other organizations to extend the reach and capacity.
General practitioners' views and experiences of counselling for physical activity through the New Zealand Green Prescription program
Asmita Patel, Grant M Schofield, Gregory S Kolt, Justin WL Keogh
BMC Family Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-12-119
Abstract: Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with 15 GPs. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach.Several themes and sub-themes emerged from the data. Notably, GPs counselled for physical activity and prescribed Green Prescriptions for both primary preventive (e.g., weight control) and secondary management (e.g., diabetes management) purposes. GPs reported the benefits of the Green Prescription centred around two main themes: (i) a non-medication approach to a healthier lifestyle and (ii) the support benefits of physical activity. Time constraints within the consultation was the only main theme that emerged regarding the barriers GPs perceived to Green Prescription use. Physical activity in general, and physical activity prescribed through the Green Prescription, were also viewed by GPs as beneficial for the management of depression.The results of this study suggest that New Zealand GPs view the Green Prescription program as beneficial for their patients with pre-existing conditions and/or weight problems. While this is encouraging, the Green Prescription may also be used to promote physical activity in currently healthy but low-active and sedentary individuals. Such individuals are currently disease free, but are at risk for future health-related problems because of their inactive lifestyle. It is recommended that time constraints of the consultation in regard to administering Green Prescriptions could be dealt with by delegating the more time consuming tasks to the patient support counsellors that support the Green Prescription program, and having practice nurses assist in the administration of Green Prescriptions. Green Prescription counselling in conjunction with antidepressant medication may be beneficial for the management of depression and warrants further research.Engagement in regular physical activity can provide both physical and psychological health benefits [1,2]. Increasing focus has
Social support for youth physical activity: Importance of siblings, parents, friends and school support across a segmented school day
Maea Hohepa, Robert Scragg, Grant Schofield, Gregory S Kolt, David Schaaf
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-4-54
Abstract: A cross-sectional sample of 12–18 year old high school students (n = 3,471) were recruited from low SES schools within South Auckland, New Zealand and categorised as either Junior (Years 9–11) or Senior (Years 12 & 13) students. Participants reported their physical activity levels and quantity of encouragement received from their parent(s), friend(s), sibling(s)/cousin(s), and school to be active. For each physical activity variable participants were dichotomized as being either "active" or "less active". For each social support source, participants were grouped into either receiving "high" or "low" levels of support. Binary logistic regression analyzes were conducted to calculate odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals.Low parental support (Juniors, OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.38–0.58; Seniors, OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.60) and low peer support (Juniors, OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.51–0.74; Seniors, OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.35–0.69) were associated with reduced odds of being regularly active after school. For lunchtime activity, low peer support (Juniors, OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.32–0.48; Seniors, OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.57) was associated with reduced odds of being categorized as active. While no variables were significantly related to active transportation among senior students, low peer support was associated with reduced odds of actively commuting for Junior students (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66–0.92). Irrespective of the activity examined, no significant difference was noted for students receiving high support from two parents than students reporting high support from their sole parent in a single parent family.The importance of encouragement from parents, siblings, friends, and schools on physical activity is dependant on the time-specific activity examined. It is clear that proximal social networks need to be considered during the development of physical activity promotion strategies.The high school years is a period of life consistently associated with a subsidence in physical activity l
A review of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions in adult males – a guide for intervention strategies
Taylor Pennie J,Kolt Gregory S,Vandelanotte Corneel,Caperchione Cristina M
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-13
Abstract: Background Energy excess, low fruit and vegetable intake and other suboptimal dietary habits contribute to an increased poor health and the burden of disease in males. However the best way to engage males into nutrition programs remains unclear. This review provides a critical evaluation of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions that target the adult male population. Methods A search for full-text publications was conducted using The Cochrane Library; Web of Science; SCOPUS; MEDLINE and CINAHL. Studies were included if 1) published from January 1990 to August 2011 and 2) male only studies (≥18 years) or 3) where males contributed to >90% of the active cohort. A study must have described, (i) a significant change (p<0.05) over time in an objective measure of body weight, expressed in kilograms (kg) OR Body Mass Index (BMI) OR (ii) at least one significant change (p<0.05) in a dietary intake measure to qualify as effective. To identify emerging patterns within the research a descriptive process was used. Results Nine studies were included. Sample sizes ranged from 53 to 5042 male participants, with study durations ranging from 12 weeks to 24 months. Overlap was seen with eight of the nine studies including a weight management component whilst six studies focused on achieving changes in dietary intake patterns relating to modifications of fruit, vegetable, dairy and total fat intakes and three studies primarily focused on achieving weight loss through caloric restriction. Intervention effectiveness was identified for seven of the nine studies. Five studies reported significant positive changes in weight (kg) and/or BMI (kg/m2) changes (p≤0.05). Four studies had effective interventions (p<0.05) targeting determinants of dietary intake and dietary behaviours and/or nutritional intake. Intervention features, which appeared to be associated with better outcomes, include the delivery of quantitative information on diet and the use of self-monitoring and tailored feedback. Conclusion Uncertainty remains as to the features of successful nutrition interventions for males due to limited details provided for nutrition intervention protocols, variability in mode of delivery and comparisons between delivery modes as well as content of information provided to participants between studies. This review offers knowledge to guide researchers in making informed decisions on how to best utilise resources in interventions to engage adult males while highlighting the need for improved reporting of intervention protocols.
The Effectiveness of Pilates Exercise in People with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review
Cherie Wells, Gregory S. Kolt, Paul Marshall, Bridget Hill, Andrea Bialocerkowski
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100402
Abstract: Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain (CLBP) through a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Data Sources A search for RCTs was undertaken using Medical Search Terms and synonyms for “Pilates” and “low back pain” within the maximal date range of 10 databases. Databases included the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Cochrane Library; Medline; Physiotherapy Evidence Database; ProQuest: Health and Medical Complete, Nursing and Allied Health Source, Dissertation and Theses; Scopus; Sport Discus; Web of Science. Study Selection Two independent reviewers were involved in the selection of evidence. To be included, relevant RCTs needed to be published in the English language. From 152 studies, 14 RCTs were included. Data Extraction Two independent reviewers appraised the methodological quality of RCTs using the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies. The author(s), year of publication, and details regarding participants, Pilates exercise, comparison treatments, and outcome measures, and findings, were then extracted. Data Synthesis The methodological quality of RCTs ranged from “poor” to “excellent”. A meta-analysis of RCTs was not undertaken due to the heterogeneity of RCTs. Pilates exercise provided statistically significant improvements in pain and functional ability compared to usual care and physical activity between 4 and 15 weeks, but not at 24 weeks. There were no consistent statistically significant differences in improvements in pain and functional ability with Pilates exercise, massage therapy, or other forms of exercise at any time period. Conclusions Pilates exercise offers greater improvements in pain and functional ability compared to usual care and physical activity in the short term. Pilates exercise offers equivalent improvements to massage therapy and other forms of exercise. Future research should explore optimal Pilates exercise designs, and whether some people with CLBP may benefit from Pilates exercise more than others.
The Healthy Steps Study: A randomized controlled trial of a pedometer-based Green Prescription for older adults. Trial protocol
Gregory S Kolt, Grant M Schofield, Ngaire Kerse, Nicholas Garrett, Philip J Schluter, Toni Ashton, Asmita Patel
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-404
Abstract: The Healthy Steps study is a 12-month randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a pedometer-based Green Prescription with the conventional time-based Green Prescription in increasing and maintaining physical activity levels in low-active adults over 65 years of age. The Green Prescription interventions involve a primary care physical activity prescription with 3 follow-up telephone counselling sessions delivered by trained physical activity counsellors over 3 months. Those in the pedometer group received a pedometer and counselling based around increasing steps that can be monitored on the pedometer, while those in the standard Green Prescription group received counselling using time-based goals. Baseline, 3 month (end of intervention), and 12 month measures were assessed in face-to-face home visits with outcomes measures being physical activity (Auckland Heart Study Physical Activity Questionnaire), quality of life (SF-36 and EQ-5D), depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), blood pressure, weight status, functional status (gait speed, chair stands, and tandem balance test) and falls and adverse events (self-report). Utilisation of health services was assessed for the economic evaluation carried out alongside this trial. As well, a process evaluation of the interventions and an examination of barriers and motives for physical activity in the sample were conducted. The perceptions of primary care physicians in relation to delivering physical activity counselling were also assessed.The findings from the Healthy Steps trial are due in late 2009. If successful in improving physical activity in older adults, the pedometer-based Green Prescription could assist in reducing utilisation of health services and improve cardiovascular health and reduction of risk for a range of non-communicable lifestyles diseases.Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN012606000023550Many older adults are at risk of lifestyle-related diseases because of a
DeLLITE Depression in late life: an intervention trial of exercise. Design and recruitment of a randomised controlled trial
Ngaire Kerse, Karen Falloon, Simon A Moyes, Karen J Hayman, Tony Dowell, Gregory S Kolt, C Raina Elley, Simon Hatcher, Kathy Peri, Sally Keeling, Elizabeth Robinson, John Parsons, Janine Wiles, Bruce Arroll
BMC Geriatrics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-8-12
Abstract: The Depression in Late Life: an Intervention Trial of Exercise (DeLLITE) is a 12 month randomised controlled trial of a physical activity intervention to increase functional status in people aged 75 years and older with depressive symptoms. The intervention involves an individualised activity programme based on goal setting and progression of difficulty of activities delivered by a trained nurse during 8 home visits over 6 months. The control group received time matched home visits to discuss social contacts and networks. Baseline, 6 and 12 months measures were assessed in face to face visits with the primary outcome being functional status (SPPB, NEADL). Secondary outcomes include depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), quality of life (SF-36), physical activity (AHS Physical Activity Questionnaire) and falls (self report).Due to report in 2008 the DeLLITE study has recruited 70% of those eligible and tests the efficacy of a home based, goal setting physical activity programme in improving function, mood and quality of life in older people with depressive symptomatology. If successful in improving function and mood this trial could prove for the first time that there are long term health benefit of physical activity, independent of social activity, in this high risk group who consume excess health related costs.Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12605000475640Depression is a common condition in older people, affecting between 17 and 30% of community dwellers over the age of 65 years [1]. Depression can be associated with significant disability, adverse health outcomes, poor quality of life and excess mortality [2] and thus is a significant concern for older people.Treatment of depression in older people has limitations. Pharmaceutical interventions have potential side effects and potentiate drug interactions which can be particularly hazardous in older people. Psychological therapies [3] are limited by their availability in many sett
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