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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 198244 matches for " Koldo Cambra Contín "
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Health impact assessment of soil pollution Evaluación del impacto en la salud de la contaminación del suelo
Koldo Cambra Contín
Revista de Salud Ambiental , 2003,
Abstract: The soil reflects every activity taking place on it, such as polluting industrial activities and waste disposal. Contaminated soils also may be the source of pollution of air (volatilization and suspension of particles), of surface and groundwater (leaching and running-off), and of vegetables grown there ( root and leaf absorption). The likelihood and extent of human exposure to soil contaminants depends on its accessibility to populations and, consequently, it can be altered dramatically when land use is changed at urban renewals. During the 90s health risk assessment was broadly used to evaluate the risk of contaminated soils and to set up maximum acceptable levels of pollutants in soil. El suelo integra y refleja todas las actividades que han tenido lugar en el curso de su existencia, entre ellas las actividades industriales contaminantes y el vertido de residuos. A su vez, puede ser el origen de la contaminación del aire (por volatilización o suspensión de partículas), del agua subterránea y superficial (por lixiviación y arrastre), y de los vegetales que se cultiven en el lugar (por absorción radicular o foliar). La probabilidad y la magnitud de la exposición de las poblaciones humanas a los contaminantes del suelo dependen de la accesibilidad y del uso del mismo, y pueden variar drásticamente en las remodelaciones urbanísticas. En los a os 90 se generalizó el uso de la evaluación de riesgos tanto para valorar zonas contaminadas como para fijar límites máximos admisibles de contaminantes en suelo.
Efectos a corto plazo de la contaminación atmosférica sobre la mortalidad: resultados del proyecto EMECAM en el gran Bilbao
Cambra Contín,Koldo; Alonso Fustel,Eva;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57271999000200010
Abstract: background: the objective of this study was to assess the short-term impact of air pollution with sulfur dioxide (so2), total suspended particles (tsp), nitrogen dioxide (no2) and black smoke (bs) on the daily number of deaths in the metropolitan area of bilbao. methods: the emecam project protocol was followed. results: increases in tsp, in both maximum hourly figures and daily averages, are significantly associated with increases in the daily number of deaths from all causes, from circulatory causes and from all causes among those older than 70. no differences between six-month periods were found. no2 average levels were associated with daily mortality from respiratory causes in the entire period and during the warm season, and from all causes among those older than 70 in the cool months. conclusions: tsp levels are associated with daily mortality in the metropolitan area of bilbao. the relationship between no2 and the number of deaths from respiratory causes, very high in the warm season, needs further research to assess its independence.
Efectos a corto plazo de la contaminación atmosférica sobre la mortalidad: resultados del proyecto EMECAM en el gran Bilbao
Cambra Contín Koldo,Alonso Fustel Eva
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 1999,
Abstract: FUNDAMENTO: Los objetivos de este estudio han sido evaluar los efectos a corto plazo de la contaminación atmosférica por dióxido de azufre (SO2), partículas, dióxido de nitrógeno (NO2) y humos negros en la mortalidad diaria en el Gran Bilbao. MéTODOS: Se ha seguido la metodología del proyecto EMECAM. RESULTADOS: Los incrementos de PST, tanto en valores máximos horarios como medios diarios, se asocian significativamente con la mortalidad por todas las causas, por causa circulatoria y en mayores de 70 a os. No se han observado diferencias por semestres. Los aumentos en los niveles medios de NO2 se asocian a aumentos de mortalidad por causa respiratoria en todo el período y en período cálido y en mayores de 70 a os en el semestre frío. CONCLUSIONES: Los niveles actuales de partículas en suspensión en el Gran Bilbao están asociados con aumentos significativos en la mortalidad. Las asociaciones encontradas entre NO2 y las muertes por causa respiratoria, muy altas principalmente en el período cálido, requieren investigaciones adicionales que valoren su independencia.
Plaguicidas y PCBs en suero en población general de Barakaldo posiblemente expuesta al hexaclorociclohexano entre 1947 y 2002
Aurrekoetxea Agirre,Juan J.; Bego?a Zubero,M.; Jiménez García,Cristina; Go?i Irigoyen,Fernando; Cambra Contín,Koldo; Alonso Fustel,Eva; Díaz-Tejeiro,M. Concepción Cadi?anos;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272011000200007
Abstract: background: a plant of lindane in barakaldo produced discharges of hexachlorocyclohexane (hch). closed in 1987 leaving inside 4500tm; the problem was not solved until 2002. a judicial process required an epidemiological assessment of the possible contamination the aim of this study is to measure the degree of impregnation of the pops in the nearby population. methods: cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, 154 volunteers from three health centres in barakaldo and 270 controls from bilbao, alonsotegi and balmaseda. we measured serum levels of eight organochlorine pesticides, and seven polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs). we used the χ2 test to study the association between categorical variables and t test of student to compare geometric means. confounding factors were adjusted using a linear regression model. results: there was a detectable compound average of 6.3 per person. pcbs 52 and 101, α -hch, β-endosulfan and heptachlor epoxide could not be quantified; pcb 28, γ-hch and p, p'-ddt were detected in 6.6, 0.9 and 8.05 % of subjects respectively and the β-hch, hcb, p, p'-dde, and pcbs 118, 138, 153 and 180 in the 73.8, 87.3, 98.6, 59.2, 97.6, 98.6 y 98.6 % respectively. after adjusting for age, there were no higher levels of β-hch in barakaldo than in controls, (beta = 0.02, se = 0.07), or hcb, p, p'-dde, pcb 118, pcb 138, pcb 153 and pcb 180. conclusion: six years after having solved the problem near to the factory and storage of hch, there was no significantly higher levels of hch, after adjustment for age.
Evaluación en cinco ciudades espa?olas del impacto en salud de la contaminación atmosférica por partículas: Proyecto europeo APHEIS
Alonso Fustel,Eva; Martínez Rueda,Teresa; Cambra Contín,Koldo; Lopez Carrasco,Laura; Boldo Pascua,Elena; Zorrilla Torras,Belén; Daponte Codina,Antonio; Aguilera Jiménez,Inmaculada; Toro Cárdenas,Silvia; I?iguez Hernandez,Carmen; Ballester Diez,Ferrán; García García,Francisco; Plasencia Taradach,Antoni; Artazcoz Lazcano,Lucía; Medina,Silvia;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272005000200015
Abstract: background: the health effects of air pollution have been analyzed in numerous studies over recent years, thus having made it possible to quantify the relationship between the two. this study is aimed at analyzing the theoretical benefits which would be achieved by meeting the air quality objectives set forth under ec directive 1999/30/ec with regard to suspended particles. methods: the exposure measurement was taken for black smoke (barcelona, bilbao, valencia) and suspended particles under 10 μm (pm10) (bilbao, madrid y sevilla). the health indicators calculated were the mortality due to all causes and respiratory and cardiovascular causes, and emergency hospital admissions and mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular causes. in the case of pm10 the impact has been calculated because its effects to short-term, within a period of up to 40 days following exposure, and to long-term. for black smoke the effects only has been calculated to short-term. results: the daily levels of pm10 from exceeding 50 μg/m3 in bilbao, madrid and sevilla cause the earlier death of 1.4/100,000 individuals per year because its effects. the effect within a period of up to 40 days following exposure is of 2.8 deaths/100,000. the total number of deaths per year which may be later due to long-term exposure if the yearly average is lowered to 20 μg/m3 is 68/100,000. conclusions: the health impact of the current air pollution levels is quantifiable and is not insignificant. apheis and the impact evaluations may be of aid in healthcare planning and environmental policies.
Cesión de plomo y otros metales desde las tuberías al agua de consumo en la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco
Zaldua Etxabe,Itziar; Cambra Cotín,Koldo; Onaindia Olalde,Conchi; Varela Alonso,José;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112010000600005
Abstract: objectives: to evaluate exposure to lead and other metals from drinking water as a result of the materials used for pipes in the supply areas of the basque country (spain). method: random sampling of properties in the supply areas was carried out. a total of 3,295 samples were taken in 154 areas, which together represented 87% of the properties supplied in our region. a method known as random day time sampling was used. each sample was tested for lead, and samples from larger areas were also tested for nickel, copper and chromium. testing for iron was optional. results: a total of 1.75% (0.85-2.64) of the properties in the supply areas exceeded the reference value for lead (10μg/l), 2.21% (0.97-3.46) exceeded that for iron (200μg/l) and 0.33% (0.11-0.55) exceeded that for nickel (20μg/l). none of the samples exceeded the reference values for copper and chromium (2mg/l and 50μg/l, respectively). conclusions: the problem of metals release from piping in the properties of the areas studied in the basque country is residual. for most of the properties, metal levels in water are below reference values and general measures are not required. suppliers must identify the presence of lead piping and the risk due to this type of piping as part of the control and management program for each individual supply area and, in particular, in those areas not included or not fully analyzed in this study.
Avanzando en la evaluación del impacto en la salud: análisis de las políticas públicas sectoriales del Gobierno Vasco como paso previo a la fase de cribado sistemático
Aldasoro,Elena; Sanz,Elvira; Bacigalupe,Amaia; Esnaola,Santiago; Calderón,Carlos; Cambra,Koldo; Zuazagoitia,Juan;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112012000100016
Abstract: health not only depends on biologic or lifestyle factors but also on other economic, social, political, and environmental factors that shape the way people live and become ill. thus, health policies are not the only policies affecting health, and consequently governments are increasingly interested in identifying the effect of other non-health policies on health. health impact assessment is a prospective methodology that aims to predict the health impacts of policies before their implementation so that modifications can be suggested to maximize positive effects and avoid unexpected negative repercussions on health. the first stage in this process is screening, which can be used to select the interventions that could benefit from complete health impact assessment. since resources are limited and not all government interventions can be assessed, tools that allow prioritization are essential. as a first stage in the validation of a systematic screening tool for health impact assessment in spain, this article presents the process of compiling and classifying the non-health public policies of the eighth term of office of the basque government. of the 97 policies analyzed, 76% were related to structural determinants of health inequalities, 79% were tactical or operational, 67% were aimed at specific population groups, and 66% were already implemented. the technical staff of other participating departments perceived the entire process of this initiative and its rationale positively. this initial experience allowed the planning of non-health policies in the basque country to be determined in detail as a means to move forward in incorporating impact on health in all policies.
El proyecto Emecas: protocolo del estudio multicéntrico en Espa?a de los efectos a corto plazo de la contaminación atmosférica sobre la salud
Ballester,Ferrán; Saez,Marc; Daponte,Antonio; Ordó?ez,Jose María; Taracido,Margarita; Cambra,Koldo; Arribas,Federico; Bellido,Juan B; Guillén,Jesús J; Aguinaga,Inés; Ca?ada,álvaro; López,Elena; I?iguez,Carmen; Rodríguez,Paz; Pérez-Hoyos,Santiago; Barceló,Maria Antonia; Oca?a,Ricardo; Aránguez,Emiliano; ,;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272005000200010
Abstract: the emecam project demonstrated the short-term effect of air pollution on the death rate in 14 cities in spain throughout the 1990-1995 period. the spanish multicentre study on health effects of air pollution (emecas) is broadening these objectives by incorporating more recent data, information on hospital disease admissions and totaling 16 spanish cities. this is an ecological time series study in which the response variables are the daily deaths and the emergency hospitalizations due to circulatory system diseases and respiratory diseases among the residents in each city. pollutants analyses: suspended particles, so2, no2, co and o3. control variables: meteorological, calendar, seasonality and influenza trend and incidence. statistical analysis: estimate of the association in each city by means of the construction of generalized additive poisson regression models and metanalysis for obtaining combined estimators. the emecas project began with the creation of three working groups (exposure, epidemiology and analysis methodology) which defined the protocol. the average levels of pollutants were below those established under the current regulations for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and ozone. the no2 and pm10 values were around those established under the regulations (40 mg/m3). this is the first study of the relationship between air pollution and disease rate among one group of spanish cities. the pollution levels studied are moderate for some pollutants, although for others, especially no2 and particles, these levels could entail a problem with regard to complying with the regulations in force.
La situació actual de la traducció jurada en llengua basca [The current state of affairs in sworn translation in the Basque language]
Biguri, Koldo
Papers Lextra , 2007,
Abstract: The professional certification of sworn translators and interpreters in the Basque language started in 1989 when the Oficina de Interpretación de Lenguas of the Spanish Foreign Ministry held its first examinations in Basque. As a result of the two examination sessions held, 10 sworn interpreters were certified. Since then, and particularly since the abovementioned Oficina discontinued the inclusion of Basque, Catalan and Galician in 1992, the Basque and Navarra autonomous governments have not created their own mechanisms for certifying new sworn translators and interpreters. As most sworn translators and interpreters are functionaries and are not allowed to work outside the purview of their institutional employment, only the Basque government, through its Official Translation Service, offers the possibility of certifying “the accuracy and legal equivalence of translations into Basque and from Basque to Spanish”. In this paper we present the Basque Language Translators Association’s (EIZIE) position and also the type of demand for sworn translation and interpretation in Basque.
Interactions between International Humanitarian Law and International Human Rights Law for the protection of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Koldo Casla
Revista Electrónica de Estudios Internacionales , 2012,
Abstract: Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ESCR) are at risk on the battlefield. Thus, human rights lawyers must look for legal means to guarantee the best possible protection of these rights in case of war. It is generally accepted nowadays that both International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and International Human Rights Law (IHRL) are applicable during armed conflicts. Adding on that and based on a procedural and substantive legal analysis, this paper claims that both IHL and IHRL constantly interact in a relation of synergy or norms.
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