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Single carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the sorption states at around 200 K, and show the poor desorption characteristics at around 300 K. The bamboo-like CNTs, HP1050 and the ground HP1050 (HP-1050G), show the desorption peaks at around 100 K and 140 K, respectively. Furthermore, HP1050G has the sorption states at around 300 - 400 K. On the basis of the sorption process, the ground bamboo-like CNT has a possibility for application to the room temperature storage of methane, which has utility for energy technologies such as fuel cells.
To fabricate a heterostructure solar cell using environmentally friendly materials and low cost techniques, tin oxide (SnO2) and cuprous oxide (Cu2O) were deposited by the sol-gel method and the electrochemical deposition, respectively. The SnO2 films were deposited from a SnCl2 solution containing ethanol and acetic acid. The Cu2O films were deposited using a galvanostatic method from an aqueous bath containing CuSO4 and lactic acid at a temperature of 40°C. The Cu2O/SnO2 heterostructure solar cells showed rectification and photovoltaic properties, and the best cell showed a conversion efficiency of 6.6 × 10－2 % with an open-circuit voltage of 0.29 V, a short-circuit current of 0.58 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 0.39.
In Xenopus laevis embryogenesis, fertilized eggs undergo 12 cycles of synchronous divisions and
reach the stage called midblastula transition (MBT). It has long been believed
that during the first 12 cycles of cleavage (pre-MBT stage), transcriptional
activity of the zygotic nuclei is totally absent. However, heterogeneous
mRNA-like RNA is synthesized in pre-MBT stage embryos, and exogenously-injected
bacterial CAT genes with SV40 promoter are
expressed from the cleavage stage. Nevertheless, the synthesis of rRNA
as detected by rRNA-specific2’-O-methylation
does not take place in pre-MBT embryos and starts only from the latter half of
the MBT stage, corroborating the fact that formation of definitive nucleoli as
well as the transcription of microinjected rRNA genes starts only at and after
MBT stage. Thus, while mRNA-like RNA synthesis occurs from pre-MBT stage,
synthesis of rRNA is controlled in the way that transcription of rRNA genes is
totally silent during pre-MBT stage and is initiated only at the latter half of
MBT stage. Once initiated, the rate of the synthesis of rRNA is constant throughout
later stages on a per-cell basis. We searched substances which are responsible
for the transcriptional silence of rRNA genes during the pre-MBT stage. Weak
bases such as ammonium ion and amines selectively inhibited rRNA synthesis at
the transcriptional level in post-MBT stage embryo cells. Since we found that
the level of ammonia extracted from embryos is much higher in pre-MBT embryos
than in post-MBT embryos, we suggest that weak bases like ammonium ion could be
responsible for the transcriptional silence of rRNA genes by slightly increasing
intracellular pH during the pre-MBT.
Noble interactions between Ar and carbons are observed for carbons, such as carbon nanotubes and carbon blacks by means of mass-analyzed thermal desorption. The absorption states exist at around 300 K as well as at around 100 K. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that Ar2p shows the chemical shifts. These results suggest that Ar is in charge and it is in valence state, or gives the evidence of the chemical interaction.