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Traditionally phase angle was the best predictor in BIA for nutrition and survival in dialysis population. We recently showed that normalized bioimpedance indices are a better risk discriminator for dialysis patients and the general popu-lation. We hereby aimed to explore discriminating factors behind them. Methods: We assessed the body capacitive index (BCI = Capacitance × Height2/Weight); body resistive index (BRI = Resistance × Weight/Height2); and also, CH2 (= Capacitance × Height2) which represents total body capacitive volume in physics. We initially performed BIA for 206 female, 116 male healthy volunteers, followed by, prospective study for 128 CAPD patients (47 diabetes mellitus (DM), 81 non-DM; 59 male, 69 female) for >2 years. Results: Moderately good negative correlation of albumin and BCI (r = -0.533, p < 0.001) with linear regression (BCI = 8.780 - 0.184 × [albumin], R2 = 0.339, p < 0.001) was shown in CAPD patients. BCI and CH2 were much higher in CAPD patients in comparison to healthy volunteers (3.4 ± 0.1 vs 2.0 ± 0.0 nFm2/kg, p < 0.001 and 203 ± 8 vs 125 ± 1 nFm2, p < 0.001, respectively). In age and gender adjusted logistic regression model of 128 CAPD patients versus 322 healthy volunteers, the best risk discriminator was BCI (X2 = 165.6), followed by CH2 (X2 = 140), phase angle (X2 = 59.3) and BRI (X2 = 52.2). Thirty five (27.3%) patients died during the study period (Fatal cause: infection (54%), cardiovascular (26%)). In Cox regression, CH2 ( X24 = 32.4) was the best predictor for all-cause mortality, followed by BCI (X24 = 27.7) and phase angle ( X24 = 19.3). Conclusion: The phase angle was a
Recent studies have suggested that reproductive interference, a deleterious interspecific interaction in the mating process, plays an important role in biological invasions. In the system of plant species, however, the border with the pollen limitation has often been vague in past studies. This study, using field and laboratory experiments and field observations, examined the reproductive success of an endangered native herbaceous plant, Veronica polita lilacina, in the context of the reproductive interference by the alien congener, V. persica. The auto-pollination experiment confirmed that both species can usually produce seeds even without external conspecific pollens. Results of the artificial pollination experiment demonstrated that pollination with the heterospecific pollens significantly decreases the number of seeds in the native species, but not in the alien species. A transplant experiment revealed that the coexistence with the alien species reduced the fruiting success of the native species. Field observations have shown the interaction between two species in the native patch with only one intruding alien species. They demonstrated that native individuals placed closer to the alien individual suffered a greater decrease in fruiting success and the seed production and that the alien intruder produced no seed. These results demonstrate that species that could reproduce via the auto-pollination suffered the reproductive interference and that the native species also exert the resistive reproductive interference slightly. These interactions can explain the displacement pattern of the native species by the alien congener in Japan.