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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2757 matches for " Kobayashi "
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Attractor-Based Simultaneous Design of the Minimum Set of Control Nodes and Controllers in Boolean Networks  [PDF]
Koichi Kobayashi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.714131
Abstract: Design of control strategies for gene regulatory networks is a challenging and important topic in systems biology. In this paper, the problem of finding both a minimum set of control nodes (control inputs) and a controller is studied. A control node corresponds to a gene that expression can be controlled. Here, a Boolean network is used as a model of gene regulatory networks, and control specifications on attractors, which represent cell types or states of cells, are imposed. It is important to design a gene regulatory network that has desired attractors and has no undesired attractors. Using a matrix-based representation of BNs, this problem can be rewritten as an integer linear programming problem. Finally, the proposed method is demonstrated by a numerical example on a WNT5A network, which is related to melanoma.
Structure Analysis for Hydrate Models of Ethyleneimine Oligomer by Quantum Chemical Calculation  [PDF]
Minoru Kobayashi, Hisaya Sato
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2010.12009
Abstract: Structure analyses for hydrate models of ethyleneimine oligomer (5-mer as model of PEI) were investigated by quantum chemical calculations. Conformation energies and structures optimized for hydrate models of (ttt)5 and (tgt)5 conformers were examined. Hydrate ratio, h [h = H2O/N (mol)], was set from 0.5 to 2. In anhydrates, (tg+t)5 conformer was more stable (?1.8 kcal/m.u.) than (ttt)5. In hydrates, (ttt)5 conformers were more stable (?0.7 - ?4.3) than (tg+t)5. These results corresponded to experimental results that anhydrous linear PEI crystal changes from double helical to single planar chain in hydration process. Structures calculated for (ttt)5 agreed in those observed for hydrates of PEI. In all (tg+t)5 conformers, O???H bonds between waters were found with the decreases of N???H bonds between imino group and water. The O???H bonds in (tg+t)5 conformer resulted in its high chain torsion, and strongly related with instability and structure change (large swelling).
Effect of Acidic Catalyst on Properties of Novel Conductive Copolymer Films Made of Pyrrole and Formyl Pyrrole  [PDF]
Yusuke Hoshina, Takaomi Kobayashi
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.43018
Abstract: Effect of acidic catalysis having carboxylic acid group was studied on properties of conductive copolymer films made of pyrrole (Py) and 2-formyl pyrrole (FPy). It was noted that trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were suitable for the preparation of copolymer films, which showed good properties in its strength and electrical conductivity of the copolymer films. When the concentration of TFA or TCA was increased in the monomer feed, the copolymerization yield became higher and the obtained films showed electrical conductivity in the range of 10–4 - 10–3 S/cm. FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra confirmed the formation of conjugate chemical structure in the copolymer film.
Comparison of a New Percent Tree Cover Dataset with Existing One and Categorical Land Cover Datasets in Eurasia  [PDF]
Toshiyuki Kobayashi, Ryutaro Tateishi
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2013.24037

The global tree cover percentage is an important parameter used to understand the global environment. However, the available percent tree cover products on global or continental-scale are few, and efforts to quantitatively validate these maps have been limited. We produced a new percent tree cover dataset at 500 m resolution in 2008 for Eurasia using reference data interpreted from Google Earth. It is a part of percent tree cover (PTC) data in Global Mapping project. In this study, the dataset was compared with existing global percent tree cover dataset, MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields, MOD44B. We assessed the agreement of these datasets with two existing global categorical land cover datasets and statistic data in Eurasia. The result showed that estimates of tree cover in our new map and MOD44B were relatively similar at randomly sampled sites. Our map and MOD44B agreed with either or both of land cover maps at 93% of sites and 91% of sites, respectively, for pixel blocks. However, we found that MOD44B disagreed with our map and categorical land cover datasets at about half of the sampled sites where the difference of tree cover percentage between our map and MOD44B was large, especially in the areas with significant differences (more than 50%). Disagreed areas were concentrated in forests of Russia and Indonesia, and in herbaceous dominated vegetation of UK and Ireland. We also found that both our map and MOD44B were somewhat different from the data reported by FRA 2010.

Reaction Rate Characteristics of SrBr2 Hydration System for Chemical Heat Pump Cooling Mode  [PDF]
Takehiro Esaki, Noriyuki Kobayashi
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2016.42012
Abstract: Here, we propose a chemical heat pump chiller with a SrBr2 hydration reaction system for utilization of waste heat. The SrBr2 hydration reaction could recover waste heat in low temperatures ranging from 373 K to 353 K, and the system showed good potential in terms of the high cooling thermal-storage density. Previous studies have given little information on the reaction characteristics of the SrBr2 hydration reaction. In this paper, we developed a measuring method for the hydration reaction equilibrium and reaction rate based on the volumetric method. We analyzed the hydration reaction rate with an unreacted-core shell model. In the experiments, the SrBr2 equilibrium temperature observed was equal to the theoretical equilibrium temperature obtained from thermodynamic databases. In addition, the hysteresis gap between the hydration and dehydration values was 2.0 K. Thus, the hysteresis effect was negligible for the chemical heat pump cooling operation. The reaction fraction of the SrBr2 hydration reached 0.7 within 20 s. By analyzing the hydration reaction rate with the unreacted-core shell model, the activation energy value was calculated to be56.6 kJ/mol. The calculation results showed good agreement with those of the experiment as the reaction fraction reached 0.7.
Discrete-Time Dynamic Image Segmentation Using Oscillators with Adaptive Coupling  [PDF]
Mio Kobayashi, Tetsuya Yoshinaga
International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application (IJMNTA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijmnta.2016.52010
Abstract: In this study, we propose a novel discrete-time coupled model to generate oscillatory responses via periodic points with a high periodic order. Our coupled system comprises one-dimensional oscillators based on the Rulkov map and a single globally coupled oscillator. Because the waveform of a one-dimensional oscillator has sharply defined peaks, the coupled system can be applied to dynamic image segmentation. Our proposed system iteratively transforms the coupling of each oscillator based on an input value that corresponds to the pixel value of an input image. This approach enables our system to segment image regions in which pixel values gradually change with respect to a connected region. We conducted a bifurcation analysis of a single oscillator and a three-coupled model. Through simulations, we demonstrated that our system works well for gray-level images with three isolated image regions.
Verification of Real-Time Pricing Systems Based on Probabilistic Boolean Networks  [PDF]
Koichi Kobayashi, Kunihiko Hiraishi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.715146
Abstract: In this paper, verification of real-time pricing systems of electricity is considered using a probabilistic Boolean network (PBN). In real-time pricing systems, electricity conservation is achieved by manipulating the electricity price at each time. A PBN is widely used as a model of complex systems, and is appropriate as a model of real-time pricing systems. Using the PBN-based model, real-time pricing systems can be quantitatively analyzed. In this paper, we propose a verification method of real-time pricing systems using the PBN-based model and the probabilistic model checker PRISM. First, the PBN-based model is derived. Next, the reachability problem, which is one of the typical verification problems, is formulated, and a solution method is derived. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is presented by a numerical example.
IR Spectroscopic Study of Silicon Nitride Films Grown at a Low Substrate Temperature Using Very High Frequency Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition  [PDF]
Shin-ichi Kobayashi
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2016.64027
Abstract: Hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) films have been grown from a SiH4–N2 gas mixture through very high frequency (VHF) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at 50. The films are dense and transparent in the visible region. The peak frequency of the Si–N stretching mode in the IR absorption spectrum increases with increasing N–H bond density, which is similar to the behavior of a-SiNx:H films grown from SiH4–NH3 gas. During storage in a dry air atmosphere, the Si–O absorption increases. A large shift in the peak frequency of the Si–N stretching mode in the initial stage of oxidation, which is higher than the shift expected from the increase in the N–H bond density, is mainly caused by the change in the sum of electronegativity of nearest neighbors around the Si–N bond due to the increase in the Si–O bond density.
Time Series Forecasting with Multiple Deep Learners: Selection from a Bayesian Network  [PDF]
Shusuke Kobayashi, Susumu Shirayama
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2017.53009
Abstract: Considering the recent developments in deep learning, it has become increasingly important to verify what methods are valid for the prediction of multivariate time-series data. In this study, we propose a novel method of time-series prediction employing multiple deep learners combined with a Bayesian network where training data is divided into clusters using K-means clustering. We decided how many clusters are the best for K-means with the Bayesian information criteria. Depending on each cluster, the multiple deep learners are trained. We used three types of deep learners: deep neural network (DNN), recurrent neural network (RNN), and long short-term memory (LSTM). A naive Bayes classifier is used to determine which deep learner is in charge of predicting a particular time-series. Our proposed method will be applied to a set of financial time-series data, the Nikkei Average Stock price, to assess the accuracy of the predictions made. Compared with the conventional method of employing a single deep learner to acquire all the data, it is demonstrated by our proposed method that F-value and accuracy are improved.
Factors Affecting the Health-Related Quality of Life of Community-Dwelling Elderly in Japan: A Focus on Spirituality  [PDF]
Minako Kobayashi, Eiji Marui
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.97080
This study aimed to explain factors affecting health-related quality of life among community-dwelling elderly individuals living in Japan. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 898 individuals at senior citizens clubs in a rural area near the Tokyo metropolitan area in 2015, and analyzed the responses of 715 who provided valid responses. The survey questions included basic attributes (e.g., age, economic affluence), state of health (e.g., whether s/he has heart disease or not), the Spirituality Rating Scale Related to Health in the Elderly (SP Health Scale, composed of, e.g., meaning and purpose of living, self-transcendence), the Abbreviated Lubben Social Network Scale, and the MOS 8-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-8). Multiple regression analyses were performed using the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of the SF-8 as dependent variables and all others as independent variables. Factors associated with improved PCS were economic affluence and SP Health Scale (meaning and purpose of living), while the factors associated with reduced PCS were age and state of health (heart disease, gastrointestinal disease, osteoarthritis, lower back pain, knee pain, and eligible for long-term care). Meanwhile, factors associated with improved MCS were economic affluence, while those that were associated with reduced MCS were state of health (cancer and headache) and SP Health Scale (self-transcendence). These results suggest the need to understand spirituality in addition to the subjective economic situation, age, and medical condition of elderly individuals in order to improve their physical and mental health.
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