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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 464109 matches for " Kobayashi A "
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K-Band Spectra and Narrowband Photometry of DENIS Field Brown Dwarfs
A. T. Tokunaga,N. Kobayashi
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/300732
Abstract: Infrared spectra at 1.9-2.5 micron and narrowband photometry of three low-mass objects, DENIS-P J0205.4-1159, J1058.7-1547, and J1228.2-1547, are presented. As shown previously by Delfosse et al. (1997, AA, 327, L25), DENIS-P J0205.4-1159 shows an absorption feature at 2.2 microns. We attribute this absorption to H_2. A simple two-parameter analysis of the K-band spectrum of low-mass objects is presented in which the relative strength of the H_2O and H_2 absorption bands is found to be correlated with the effective temperature of the objects. The analysis confirms that DENIS-P J0205.4-1159 is the lowest-temperature object of the three. We present narrow-band photometry of these objects which provides the continuum flux level inbetween the deep H_2O absorption bands. These data show the continuum level accurately for the first time, and they will provide tight constraints for spectral models of these interesting objects.
Extending phase field models of grain boundaries to three dimensions
Ryo Kobayashi,James A. Warren
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: In this letter we describe a method of extending an existing phase field model of polycrystalline solidification from two to three dimensions (3D).
Attractor-Based Simultaneous Design of the Minimum Set of Control Nodes and Controllers in Boolean Networks  [PDF]
Koichi Kobayashi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.714131
Abstract: Design of control strategies for gene regulatory networks is a challenging and important topic in systems biology. In this paper, the problem of finding both a minimum set of control nodes (control inputs) and a controller is studied. A control node corresponds to a gene that expression can be controlled. Here, a Boolean network is used as a model of gene regulatory networks, and control specifications on attractors, which represent cell types or states of cells, are imposed. It is important to design a gene regulatory network that has desired attractors and has no undesired attractors. Using a matrix-based representation of BNs, this problem can be rewritten as an integer linear programming problem. Finally, the proposed method is demonstrated by a numerical example on a WNT5A network, which is related to melanoma.
A sliding technique to load thin endothelial donor lamella onto Busin glide for Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty
Kobayashi A, Yokogawa H, Sugiyama K
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S34197
Abstract: sliding technique to load thin endothelial donor lamella onto Busin glide for Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty Methodology (1314) Total Article Views Authors: Kobayashi A, Yokogawa H, Sugiyama K Published Date August 2012 Volume 2012:6 Pages 1229 - 1231 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S34197 Received: 24 May 2012 Accepted: 21 June 2012 Published: 02 August 2012 Akira Kobayashi, Hideaki Yokogawa, Kazuhisa Sugiyama Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan Abstract: We describe a modified technique for loading donor corneal endothelial lamella onto a Busin glide without causing wrinkles, as part of the procedure of Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Briefly, after punching out a composite of the donor-endothelial lamella and a microkeratome-dissected cap, several drops of dispersive ophthalmic viscosurgical device are placed onto the endothelial surface. The Busin glide surface is then wetted with several drops of balanced salt solution. After the composite is transferred onto the Busin glide, hydrodissection of the potential space between the donor-endothelial lamella and the microkeratome-dissected cap is carefully performed to enable smooth detachment of these two lamellae. Whereas simply dragging the donor-endothelial lamella directly onto the glide can cause wrinkling or folding of the donor lamella, this technique enables smooth detachment of the composite without wrinkle or fold formation, and results in less endothelial cell damage.
In vivo laser confocal microscopy findings in patients with map-dot-fingerprint (epithelial basement membrane) dystrophy
Kobayashi A, Yokogawa H, Sugiyama K
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S34196
Abstract: vivo laser confocal microscopy findings in patients with map-dot-fingerprint (epithelial basement membrane) dystrophy Case Series (1491) Total Article Views Authors: Kobayashi A, Yokogawa H, Sugiyama K Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:6 Pages 1187 - 1190 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S34196 Received: 24 May 2012 Accepted: 12 June 2012 Published: 27 July 2012 Akira Kobayashi, Hideaki Yokogawa, Kazuhisa Sugiyama Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate pathological changes of the corneal cell layer in patients with map-dot-fingerprint (epithelial basement membrane) dystrophy by in vivo laser corneal confocal microscopy. Methods: Two patients were evaluated using a cornea-specific in vivo laser scanning confocal microscope (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM). The affected corneal areas of both patients were examined. Image analysis was performed to identify corneal epithelial and stromal deposits correlated with this dystrophy. Results: Variously shaped (linear, multilaminar, curvilinear, ring-shape, geographic) highly reflective materials were observed in the “map” area, mainly in the basal epithelial cell layer. In “fingerprint” lesions, multiple linear and curvilinear hyporeflective lines were observed. Additionally, in the affected corneas, infiltration of possible Langerhans cells and other inflammatory cells was observed as highly reflective Langerhans cell-like or dot images. Finally, needle-shaped materials were observed in one patient. Conclusion: HRT 2-RCM laser confocal microscopy is capable of identifying corneal microstructural changes related to map-dot-fingerprint corneal dystrophy in vivo. The technique may be useful in elucidating the pathogenesis and natural course of map-dot-fingerprint corneal dystrophy and other similar basement membrane abnormalities.
One's sex, sleep, and posttraumatic stress disorder
Kobayashi Ihori,Cowdin Nancy,Mellman Thomas A
Biology of Sex Differences , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2042-6410-3-29
Abstract: Women are approximately twice as likely as men to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma exposure. Mechanisms underlying this difference are not well understood. Although sleep is recognized to have a critical role in PTSD and physical and psychological health more generally, research into the role of sleep in PTSD sex differences has been only recent. In this article, we review both animal and human studies relevant to sex differences in sleep and PTSD with an emphasis on the roles of sex hormones. Sleep impairment including insomnia, trauma-related nightmares, and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep fragmentation has been observed in individuals with chronic and developing PTSD, suggesting that sleep impairment is a characteristic of PTSD and a risk factor for its development. Preliminary findings suggested sex specific patterns of sleep alterations in developing and established PTSD. Sleep maintenance impairment in the aftermath of trauma was observed in women who subsequently developed PTSD, and greater REM sleep fragmentation soon after trauma was associated with developing PTSD in both sexes. In chronic PTSD, reduced deep sleep has been found only in men, and impaired sleep initiation and maintenance with PTSD have been found in both sexes. A limited number of studies with small samples have shown that sex hormones and their fluctuations over the menstrual cycle influenced sleep as well as fear extinction, a process hypothesized to be critical to the pathogenesis of PTSD. To further elucidate the possible relationship between the sex specific patterns of PTSD-related sleep alterations and the sexually dimorphic risk for PTSD, future studies with larger samples should comprehensively examine effects of sex hormones and the menstrual cycle on sleep responses to trauma and the risk/resilience for PTSD utilizing various methodologies including fear conditioning and extinction paradigms and animal models.
A sliding technique to load thin endothelial donor lamella onto Busin glide for Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty
Kobayashi A,Yokogawa H,Sugiyama K
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2012,
Abstract: Akira Kobayashi, Hideaki Yokogawa, Kazuhisa SugiyamaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, JapanAbstract: We describe a modified technique for loading donor corneal endothelial lamella onto a Busin glide without causing wrinkles, as part of the procedure of Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Briefly, after punching out a composite of the donor-endothelial lamella and a microkeratome-dissected cap, several drops of dispersive ophthalmic viscosurgical device are placed onto the endothelial surface. The Busin glide surface is then wetted with several drops of balanced salt solution. After the composite is transferred onto the Busin glide, hydrodissection of the potential space between the donor-endothelial lamella and the microkeratome-dissected cap is carefully performed to enable smooth detachment of these two lamellae. Whereas simply dragging the donor-endothelial lamella directly onto the glide can cause wrinkling or folding of the donor lamella, this technique enables smooth detachment of the composite without wrinkle or fold formation, and results in less endothelial cell damage.Keywords: DSAEK, Busin glide, endothelial keratoplasty
In vivo laser confocal microscopy findings in patients with map-dot-fingerprint (epithelial basement membrane) dystrophy
Kobayashi A,Yokogawa H,Sugiyama K
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2012,
Abstract: Akira Kobayashi, Hideaki Yokogawa, Kazuhisa SugiyamaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate pathological changes of the corneal cell layer in patients with map-dot-fingerprint (epithelial basement membrane) dystrophy by in vivo laser corneal confocal microscopy.Methods: Two patients were evaluated using a cornea-specific in vivo laser scanning confocal microscope (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM). The affected corneal areas of both patients were examined. Image analysis was performed to identify corneal epithelial and stromal deposits correlated with this dystrophy.Results: Variously shaped (linear, multilaminar, curvilinear, ring-shape, geographic) highly reflective materials were observed in the “map” area, mainly in the basal epithelial cell layer. In “fingerprint” lesions, multiple linear and curvilinear hyporeflective lines were observed. Additionally, in the affected corneas, infiltration of possible Langerhans cells and other inflammatory cells was observed as highly reflective Langerhans cell-like or dot images. Finally, needle-shaped materials were observed in one patient.Conclusion: HRT 2-RCM laser confocal microscopy is capable of identifying corneal microstructural changes related to map-dot-fingerprint corneal dystrophy in vivo. The technique may be useful in elucidating the pathogenesis and natural course of map-dot-fingerprint corneal dystrophy and other similar basement membrane abnormalities.Keywords: cornea, confocal microscopy, map-dot-fingerprint dystrophy, epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module (HRT 2-RCM)
Cosmological Constraints on Rapid Roll Inflation
Takeshi Kobayashi,Shinji Mukohyama,Brian A. Powell
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2009/09/023
Abstract: We obtain cosmological constraints on models of inflation which exhibit rapid roll solutions. Rapid roll attractors exist for potentials with large mass terms and are thus of interest for inflationary model building within string theory. We constrain a general ansatz for the power spectrum arising from rapid roll inflation that, in the small field limit, can be associated with tree level hybrid potentials with variable mass terms and nonminimal gravitational coupling $\xi R\phi^2$. We consider perturbations generated through modulated reheating and/or curvaton mechanisms in place of the observationally unacceptable primary spectra generated by inflaton fluctuations in these models. The lack of a hierarchy amongst higher-order $k$-dependencies of the power spectrum results in models with potentially large runnings, allowing us to impose tight constraints on such models using CMB and LSS data. In particular, we find $n_s <1$ and $|\alpha| < 0.01$. We conclude with a concrete realization of rapid roll inflation within warped throat brane inflation that is in good agreement with current data.
Frustrated Ising Model on a Diamond Hierarchical Lattice
H. Kobayashi,Y. Fukumoto,A. Oguchi
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.78.074004
Abstract: A frustrated Ising model on a diamond hierarchical lattice is studied. We obtain the exact partition function of this model and calculate the transition temperature, specific heat, entropy, magnetization, and ferromagnetic correlation function. Depending on the magnitude of a parameter giving the frustration, there exist three types of ground states: ferromagnetic, classical spin-liquid with highly developed short-range order, and paramagnetic. The dependence of the zero-temperature entropy on the frustration parameter has an infinite number of steps. The temperature dependence of the specific heat exhibits many peaks with decreasing temperature and entropy loss. The dominant spin configurations at low temperatures are also specified.
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