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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 25 matches for " Knoblauch "
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Diskussionsbeitrag: Thesen zur Lehr- und Lernbarkeit qualitativer Methoden Comment: Thesen zur Lehr- und Lernbarkeit qualitativer Methoden [Can Qualitative Methods Be Taught and Learned? Some Theses] Comentario: Thesen zur Lehr- und Lernbarkeit qualitativer Methoden [Los siguientes títulos de contribuciones al debate: Tesis acerca de la ense anza y el aprendizaje sobre métodos cualitativos]
Hubert Knoblauch
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2007,
Abstract: URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701D4K9 URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701D4K9 URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701D4K9
Fokussierte Ethnografie Focused Ethnography La etnografía enfocada
Hubert Knoblauch
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2005,
Abstract: Der Beitrag behandelt eine besondere Art der soziologischen Ethnographie, die vor allem, aber nicht ausschlie lich in der angewandten Forschung eingesetzt wird. Es wird vorgeschlagen, diese Art der Ethnographie als "fokussierte Ethnographie" zu bezeichnen. Die fokussierte Ethnographie wird vor dem Hintergrund der herk mmlichen Formen der Ethnographie beschrieben. Sie bildet weniger einen Gegensatz als eine Erg nzung zu diesen herk mmlicheren Formen, da sie sich besonders für die moderne differenzierte Gesellschaft eignet. Der Beitrag skizziert die Hintergründe wie auch die wesentlichen methodologischen Merkmale der fokussierten Ethnographie, wie etwa kurzfristige Feldaufenthalte, Datenintensit t und Zeitintensit t, um damit die M glichkeiten für weitere Forschungen zu ebnen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440 In this paper I focus on a distinctive kind of sociological ethnography which is particularly, though not exclusively, adopted in applied research. It has been proposed that this branch of ethno-graphy be referred to as focused ethnography. Focused ethnography shall be delineated within the context of other common conceptions of what may be called conventional ethnography. However, rather than being opposed to it, focused ethno-graphy is rather complementary to conventional ethnography, particularly in fields that are charac-teristic of socially and functionally differentiated contemporary society. The paper outlines the back-ground as well as the major methodological features of focused ethnography, such as short-term field visits, data intensity and time intensity, so as to provide a background for future studies in this area. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440 En este artículo me centro en un tipo distintivo de etnografía sociológica que es particularmente, aunque no exclusivamente, adoptada en la investigación aplicada. Se ha planteado que esta rama de la etnografía sea discutida como etnografía enfocada. La etnografía enfocada ha de ser delineada en el contexto de otras concepciones comunes de lo que podría llamarse etnografía convencional. Sin embargo, más que oponerse, la etnografía enfocada complementa a la convencional, particularmente en campos que son característicos de la diferenciada social y funcionalmente sociedad contemporánea. El artículo resume el sustrato y los principales rasgos metodológicos de la etnografía enfocada, así como las cortas visitas al campo, la intensidad de los datos y los tiempos, y proporciona un fundamento para los estudios futuros en éste área. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440
MLDS: Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling in R
Kenneth Knoblauch,Laurence T. Maloney
Journal of Statistical Software , 2008,
Abstract: The MLDS package in the R programming language can be used to estimate perceptual scales based on the results of psychophysical experiments using the method of difference scaling. In a difference scaling experiment, observers compare two supra-threshold differences (a,b) and (c,d) on each trial. The approach is based on a stochastic model of how the observer decides which perceptual difference (or interval) (a,b) or (c,d) is greater, and the parameters of the model are estimated using a maximum likelihood criterion. We also propose a method to test the model by evaluating the self-consistency of the estimated scale. The package includes an example in which an observer judges the differences in correlation between scatterplots. The example may be readily adapted to estimate perceptual scales for arbitrary physical continua.
Qualitative Methoden in Europa. Die Vielfalt der Sozialforschung Qualitative Methods in Europe: The Variety of Social Research Métodos cualitativos en Europa: La variedad de la investigación social
Hubert Knoblauch,Uwe Flick,Christoph Maeder
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2005,
Abstract: Der Aufsatz bietet eine Einführung in die FQS-Schwerpunktausgabe über qualitative Methoden in Europa. Er schildert die besondere Situation der qualitativen Forschung in diesem Raum, die durch Vielfalt und Einheit gepr gt ist. Vielfalt, denn die verschiedenen geistigen Traditionen und institutionellen Strukturen der Sozialwissenschaft, die den Hintergrund der qualitativen Forschung bilden, unterscheiden sich zwischen den einzelnen L ndern betr chtlich. Vielfalt verweist auf eine Reihe von selbst ndigen Weisen der Forschungspraxis, die neben den bekannten anglos chsischen Entwicklungen zu finden sind und diese erg nzen. Eine Einheit findet sich trotz aller Unterschiede der Forschungspraktiken darin, dass sie alle an einem interpretativen Paradigma ausgerichtet sind, eine Ausrichtung, die auf Sinn, Verstehen und Kontextualit t aufbaut. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503342 This paper serves as an introduction to the special issue of FQS on "Qualitative Methods in Europe". It outlines the particular situation of qual-itative research in this realm, which is charac-terised by diversity and unity. Diversity since the different intellectual traditions and institutional structures of the social sciences, which form the background of qualitative research differ signifi-cantly between the various countries. This variation indicates a number of traditional ways to do qual-itative research that complement and complete the well-known Anglo-Saxon development. Unity, since despite all the differences, the various ways of doing research are characterised by the inter-pretive paradigm, a way of "doing" social sciences that builds on meaning, understanding and context. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503342 Este artículo sirve de introducción al volumen especial de FQS sobre Métodos Cualitativos en Europa. Resume la situación particular de la investigación cualitativa en este territorio, que se caracteriza por la diversidad y la unidad. Diversidad desde las diferentes tradiciones intelectuales y las estructuras institucionales de las ciencias sociales, que desde el bagaje de la investigación cualitativa son diferentes significativamente en los distintos países. Esa variación ofrece un conjunto de formas tradicionales de hacer investigación cualitativa que complementa y completa el bien conocido desarrollo anglo-sajón. Unidad, a pesar de todas las diferencias, las variadas formas de hacer investigación se caracterizan mediante el paradigma interpretativo, una forma de "hacer" ciencia social que se construye a partir de los significados, la comprensión y el contexto. URN: urn:nbn:de:01
Comprehensive Optical Investigations of Charge Order in Organic Chain Compounds (TMTTF)2X
Martin Dressel,Michael Dumm,Tobias Knoblauch,Matteo Masino
Crystals , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/cryst2020528
Abstract: Charge ordering in the (TMTTF) 2X salts with centrosymmetric anions (X = PF ̄ 6 , AsF ̄ 6 , SbF ̄ 6 ) leads to a ferroelectric state around 100 K. For the first time and in great completeness, the intra- and intermolecular vibrational modes of (TMTTF) 2X have been investigated by infrared and Raman spectroscopy as a function of temperature and pressure for different polarizations. In this original paper, we explore the development and amount of charge disproportionation and the coupling of the electronic degrees of freedom to the counterions and the underlying lattice. The methyl groups undergo changes with temperature that are crucial for the anion cage formed by them. We find that the coupling of the TMTTF molecules to the hexafluorine anions changes upon cooling and especially at the charge-order transition, indicating a distortion of the anion. Additional features are identified that are caused by the anharmonic potential. The spin-Peierls transition entails additional modifications in the charge distribution. To complete the discussion, we also add the vibrational frequencies and eigenvectors based on ab-initio quantum-chemical calculations.
Improved quantification of microbial CH4 oxidation efficiency in arctic wetland soils using carbon isotope fractionation
I. Preuss, C. Knoblauch, J. Gebert,E.-M. Pfeiffer
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2013,
Abstract: Permafrost-affected tundra soils are significant sources of the climate-relevant trace gas methane (CH4). The observed accelerated warming of the arctic will cause deeper permafrost thawing, followed by increased carbon mineralization and CH4 formation in water-saturated tundra soils, thus creating a positive feedback to climate change. Aerobic CH4 oxidation is regarded as the key process reducing CH4 emissions from wetlands, but quantification of turnover rates has remained difficult so far. The application of carbon stable isotope fractionation enables the in situ quantification of CH4 oxidation efficiency in arctic wetland soils. The aim of the current study is to quantify CH4 oxidation efficiency in permafrost-affected tundra soils in Russia's Lena River delta based on stable isotope signatures of CH4. Therefore, depth profiles of CH4 concentrations and δ13CH4 signatures were measured and the fractionation factors for the processes of oxidation (αox) and diffusion (αdiff) were determined. Most previous studies employing stable isotope fractionation for the quantification of CH4 oxidation in soils of other habitats (such as landfill cover soils) have assumed a gas transport dominated by advection (αtrans = 1). In tundra soils, however, diffusion is the main gas transport mechanism and diffusive stable isotope fractionation should be considered alongside oxidative fractionation. For the first time, the stable isotope fractionation of CH4 diffusion through water-saturated soils was determined with an αdiff = 1.001 ± 0.000 (n = 3). CH4 stable isotope fractionation during diffusion through air-filled pores of the investigated polygonal tundra soils was αdiff = 1.013 ± 0.003 (n = 18). Furthermore, it was found that αox differs widely between sites and horizons (mean αox = 1.017 ± 0.009) and needs to be determined on a case by case basis. The impact of both fractionation factors on the quantification of CH4 oxidation was analyzed by considering both the potential diffusion rate under saturated and unsaturated conditions and potential oxidation rates. For a submerged, organic-rich soil, the data indicate a CH4 oxidation efficiency of 50% at the anaerobic–aerobic interface in the upper horizon. The improved in situ quantification of CH4 oxidation in wetlands enables a better assessment of current and potential CH4 sources and sinks in permafrost-affected ecosystems and their potential strengths in response to global warming.
Visuelle Analyse. Neue Entwicklungen in der interpretativen Analyse von Video und Fotografie Visual Analysis. New Developments in the Interpretative Analysis of Video and Photography Análisis visual. Nuevos desarrollos en el análisis interpretativo de video y fotografía
Hubert Knoblauch,Alejandro Baer,Eric Laurier,Sabine Petschke
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2008,
Abstract: Die Verwendung visueller Forschungsmethoden erf hrt in den Sozialwissenschaften eine immer st rkere Verbreitung. Ausgehend von ihren Ursprüngen in Disziplinen wie der Sozialanthropologie und Soziologie sind visuelle Forschungsmethoden mittlerweile in zahlreichen Forschungsfeldern fest verwurzelt, unter anderem in der Soziologie, den Gesundheits- und Erziehungswissenschaften, der Kriminologie, der Human- und Kulturgeografie, der Medienforschung und den Cultural Studies, der Diskursanalyse und der Sozialpsychologie, der Management- und Organisationsforschung sowie der Politikwissenschaft. Die rapide Entwicklung von Informationstechnologie erleichtert die Anfertigung und Bearbeitung von digitalen Medien und bringt die computergestützten Techniken der Speicherung und Bearbeitung visueller Daten voran. Dies erfordert die Entwicklung neuer methodischer Instrumente für die Zukunft. In diesem Band werden einige der vielversprechendsten Ans tze der interpretativen Sozialwissenschaft aus verschiedenen disziplin ren Blickwinkeln vorgestellt. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803148 The use of visual research methods has become increasingly widespread throughout the social sciences. From their origins in disciplines like social anthropology and sociology, visual research methods are now firmly entrenched in major fields of inquiry, including sociology, health and nursing studies, educational research, criminology, human and cultural geography, media and cultural studies, discursive and social psychology, management and organisation studies, political science and policy analysis. The rapid development of information technology, facilitating the creation and editing of digitised data, and computer-based techniques for the storage and management of visual data, means that new methodological approaches are being developed and are envisaged for the near future. Some important and promising approaches are presented in this issue by a number of researchers from different angles of the interpretive social sciences. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803148 La utilización de métodos de investigación visual se ha extendido progresivamente en las ciencias sociales. Desde sus orígenes en disciplinas como la antropología social y la sociología, los métodos de investigación visual están ahora firmemente establecidos en los principales campos de estudio, incluyendo la sociología, los estudios sobre salud y enfermería, investigación educativa, criminología, geografía humana y cultural, estudios culturales y de medios, psicología social y discursiva, estudios de organización y gestión, ciencia políti
Improved quantification of microbial CH4 oxidation efficiency in Arctic wetland soils using carbon isotope fractionation
I. Preuss,C. Knoblauch,J. Gebert,E.-M. Pfeiffer
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-9-16999-2012
Abstract: Permafrost-affected tundra soils are significant sources of the climate-relevant trace gas methane (CH4). The observed accelerated warming of the Arctic will cause a deeper permafrost thawing followed by increased carbon mineralization and CH4 formation in water saturated tundra soils which might cause a positive feedback to climate change. Aerobic CH4 oxidation is regarded as the key process reducing CH4 emissions from wetlands, but quantification of turnover rates has remained difficult so far. The application of carbon stable isotope fractionation enables the in situ quantification of CH4 oxidation efficiency in arctic wetland soils. The aim of the current study is to quantify CH4 oxidation efficiency in permafrost-affected tundra soils in Russia's Lena River Delta based on stable isotope signatures of CH4. Therefore, depth profiles of CH4 concentrations and δ13CH4-signatures were measured and the fractionation factors for the processes of oxidation (αox) and diffusion (αdiff) were determined. Most previous studies employing stable isotope fractionation for the quantification of CH4 oxidation in soils of other habitats (e.g. landfill cover soils) have assumed a gas transport dominated by advection (αtrans = 1). In tundra soils, however, diffusion is the main gas transport mechanism, aside from ebullition. Hence, diffusive stable isotope fractionation has to be considered. For the first time, the stable isotope fractionation of CH4 diffusion through water-saturated soils was determined with an αdiff = 1.001 ± 0.000 (n = 3). CH4 stable isotope fractionation during diffusion through air-filled pores of the investigated polygonal tundra soils was αdiff = 1.013 ± 0.003 (n = 18). Furthermore, it was found that αox differs widely between sites and horizons (mean αox, = 1.017 ± 0.009) and needs to be determined individually. The impact of both fractionation factors on the quantification of CH4 oxidation was analyzed by considering both the potential diffusion rate under saturated and unsaturated conditions and potential oxidation rates. For a submerged organic rich soil, the data indicate a CH4 oxidation efficiency of 50% at the anaerobic-aerobic interface in the upper horizon. The improved in situ quantification of CH4 oxidation in wetlands enables a better assessment of current and potential CH4 sources and sinks in permafrost affected ecosystems and their potential strengths in response to global warming.
Plasma focus based repetitive source of fusion neutrons and hard x-rays
Raspa V,Di Lorenzo F,Knoblauch P,Lazarte A
PMC Physics A , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1754-0410-2-5
Abstract: A plasma focus device capable of operating at 0.2 pulses per second during several minutes is used as a source of hard x-rays and fast neutrons. An experimental demonstration of the use of the neutrons emissions for radiation probing of hydrogenated substances is presented, showing a particular application in detecting water concentrations differences in the proximity of the device by elastic scattering. Moreover, the device produces ultrashort hard x-rays pulses useful for introspective images of small objects, static or in fast motion, suitable for the identification of internal submillimetric defects. Clear images of metallic objects shielded by several millimeters iron walls are shown. PACS Codes: 29.25.Dz,52.59.Px
Carbon Sequestration in Coastal Soils under Different Land Use in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany
Normah Awang Besar,Christian Knoblauch,Eva-Maria Pfeiffer
Environment and Natural Resources Research (ENRR) , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/enrr.v1n1p53
Abstract: The study was located in the coastal soils “Katinger Watt”, a former tidal flat of the North Sea coast in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Carbon sequestration was determined by the ecological approach and calculated as the difference between total annual net primary production and total annual heterotrophic respiration. The measurement was conducted every month from June 2006 to May 2007. All sites were underlain by very young soils that developed after the former marine tidal flat was diked in 1973 which means that soil formation continues since 35 year. The initial conditions after diking were similar in all sites. All soils were classified as Normkalkmarsch according to the German soil classification, as Calcic Fluvisol according to World Reference Database for Soil Resources and as Typic Fluvaquent according to the Soil Taxonomy. The annual carbon sequestration in the arable land was estimated as -0.82 t C ha-1 yr-1 which indicates that the arable land acted as a net CO2 source during the investigation period. In the grassland, about 0.18 t C ha-1 yr-1 was sequestered in the soil. In other words the grassland acted as a carbon sink during the investigation period.
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