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What does the “arrow of time” stand for?  [PDF]
Etienne Klein
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.23033
Abstract: One hundred and thirty years after the work of Ludwig Boltzmann on the interpretation of the irreversibility of physical phenomena, and one century after Einstein's formulation of Special Relativity, we are still not sure what we mean when we talk of “time” or “arrow of time”. We shall try to show that one source of this difficulty is our tendency to confuse, at least verbally, time and becoming, i.e. the course of time and the arrow of time, two concepts that the formalisms of modern physics are careful to distinguish. The course of time is represented by a time line that leads us to define time as the producer of duration. It is customary to place on this time line a small arrow that, ironically, must not be confused with the “arrow of time”. This small arrow is only there to indicate that the course of time is oriented, has a well-defined direction, even if this direction is arbitrary. The arrow of time, on the other hand, indicates the possibility for physical systems to experience, over the course of time, changes or transforma-tions that prevent them from returning to their initial state forever. Contrary to what the ex-pression “arrow of time” suggests, it is there-fore not a property of time itself but a property of certain physical phenomena whose dynamic is irreversible. By its very definition, the arrow of time presupposes the existence of a well- established course of time within which – in addition – certain phenomena have their own temporal orientation. We think that it is worth-while to emphasize the difference between sev-eral issues traditionally subsumed under the label “the problem of the direction of time”. If the expressions “course of time”, “direction of time” and “arrow of time” were better defined, systematically distinguished from one another and always used in their strictest sense, the debate about time, irreversibility and becoming in physics would become clearer.
The Efficacy of Hyaluronic Acid in the Restoration of Soft Tissue Volume of the Lips and Lower 1/3 of the Face: The Evolution of the Injection Technique  [PDF]
Arnold William Klein
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2011.14022
Abstract: Study objective: To establish the safety and efficacy of small-gel particle hyaluronic acid (SGP-HA; Restylane®, Medicis Aesthetics Inc., Scottsdale, AZ) for lip augmentation. Study design: This was a Phase 3, prospective, open-label, evaluator-blinded, single-center pilot study of SGP-HA use in lip augmentation. The primary efficacy objectives were to investigate the efficacy of SGP-HA in lip augmentation and to assess subject satisfaction with the procedure 12 weeks after treatment. Secondary efficacy objectives were to validate 3D imaging to measure lip augmentation, identify subject satisfaction at all points in time, and identify the duration of lip augmentation and palpability of SGP-HA in the lips. The primary safety objective was to assess the incidence, duration, and severity of all adverse experiences. Results: All 20 subjects and the treating investigator indicated improvement in the appearance of subjects’ lips at weeks 2, 6, and 12. SGP-HA administered for augmentation was well tolerated. Four (20%) subjects treated with SGP-HA experienced 7 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Conclusions: Results of this study show promising efficacy and an absence of safety issues with the use of SGP-HA in lip augmentation.
On the Ellipsoid and Plane Intersection Equation  [PDF]
Peter Paul Klein
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.311226
Abstract: It is well known that the line of intersection of an ellipsoid and a plane is an ellipse. In this note simple formulas for the semi-axes and the center of the ellipse are given, involving only the semi-axes of the ellipsoid, the componentes of the unit normal vector of the plane and the distance of the plane from the center of coordinates. This topic is relatively common to study, but, as indicated in [1], a closed form solution to the general problem is actually very difficult to derive. This is attemped here. As applications problems are treated, which were posed in the internet [1,2], pertaining to satellite orbits in space and to planning radio-therapy treatment of eyes.
On the Intersection Equation of a Hyperboloid and a Plane  [PDF]
Peter Paul Klein
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.412A005

In this note, the ideas employed in [1] to treat the problem of an ellipsoid intersected by a plane are applied to the analogous problem of a hyperboloid being intersected by a plane. The curves of intersection resulting in this case are not only ellipses but rather all types of conics: ellipses, hyperbolas and parabolas. In text books of mathematics usually only cases are treated, where the planes of intersection are parallel to the coordinate planes. Here the general case is illustrated with intersecting planes which are not necessarily parallel to the coordinate planes.

Patient Safety: An Injectable Education  [PDF]
Arnold William Klein
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2013.33A2009

Until recently, the effects of all injectable filling agents were temporary and very rarely associated with permanent problems. In the past, the permanent injectable silicone had been used but had been so problematic that the Justice Department filed injunctions against certain physicians on behalf of the FDA. After 2000 a dangerous pattern grew in the corridors of Washington DC, where politics and money changed the face of America and the field of aesthetics to the detriment of the faces of the consumers. Industry has accomplished the approval of synthetic agents that should have never reached the market. Once injected under skin, the body cannot digest these agents and the immune system walls them off with resultant formation of nodules, which at times require surgical removal.

Partial Formalization: An Approach for Critical Analysis of Definitions and Methods Used in Bulk Extraction-Based Molecular Microbial Ecology  [PDF]
Donald A. Klein
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2015.58033
Abstract: Partial formalization, which involves the development of deductive connections among statements, can be used to examine assumptions, definitions and related methodologies that are used in science. This approach has been applied to the study of nucleic acids recovered from natural microbial assemblages (NMA) by the use of bulk extraction. Six pools of bulk-extractable nucleic acids (BENA) are suggested to be present in a NMA: (pool 1) inactive microbes (abiotic-limited); (pool 2) inactive microbes (abiotic permissive, biotic-limited); (pool 3) dormant microbes (abiotic permissive, biotic-limited, but can become biotic permissive); (pool 4) in situ active microbes (the microbial community); (pool 5) viruses (virocells/virions/cryptic viral genomes); and (pool 6) extracellular nucleic acids including extracellular DNA (eDNA). Definitions for cells, the microbial community (in situ active cells), the rare biosphere, dormant cells (the microbial seed bank), viruses (virocells/virions/cryptic viral genomic), and diversity are presented, together with methodology suggested to allow their study. The word diversity will require at least 4 definitions, each involving a different methodology. These suggested definitions and methodologies should make it possible to make further advances in bulk extraction-based molecular microbial ecology.
Projection of the Semi-Axes of the Ellipse of Intersection  [PDF]
P. P. Klein
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/am.2017.89097
It is well known that the line of intersection of an ellipsoid and a plane is an ellipse (see for instance [1]). In this note the semi-axes of the ellipse of intersection will be projected from 3d space onto a 2d plane. It is shown that the projected semi-axes agree with results of a method used by Bektas [2] and also with results obtained by Schrantz [3].
The Statistical Origins of Quantum Mechanics
U. Klein
Physics Research International , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/808424
Abstract: It is shown that Schrödinger's equation may be derived from three postulates. The first is a kind of statistical metamorphosis of classical mechanics, a set of two relations which are obtained from the canonical equations of particle mechanics by replacing all observables by statistical averages. The second is a local conservation law of probability with a probability current which takes the form of a gradient. The third is a principle of maximal disorder as realized by the requirement of minimal Fisher information. The rule for calculating expectation values is obtained from a fourth postulate, the requirement of energy conservation in the mean. The fact that all these basic relations of quantum theory may be derived from premises which are statistical in character is interpreted as a strong argument in favor of the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics. The structures of quantum theory and classical statistical theories are compared, and some fundamental differences are identified.
Long Bone Histology of Sauropterygia from the Lower Muschelkalk of the Germanic Basin Provides Unexpected Implications for Phylogeny
Nicole Klein
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011613
Abstract: Sauropterygia is an abundant and successful group of Triassic marine reptiles. Phylogenetic relationships of Triassic Sauropterygia have always been unstable and recently questioned. Although specimens occur in high numbers, the main problems are rareness of diagnostic material from the Germanic Basin and uniformity of postcranial morphology of eosauropterygians. In the current paper, morphotypes of humeri along with their corresponding bone histologies for Lower to Middle Muschelkalk sauropterygians are described and interpreted for the first time in a phylogenetic context.
Sexual Orientation, Drug Use Preference during Sex, and HIV Risk Practices and Preferences among Men Who Specifically Seek Unprotected Sex Partners via the Internet
Hugh Klein
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph6051620
Abstract: The present study entailed conducting a content analysis of 1,434 ads/profiles posted on one of the most popular “Men who have Sex with Men” (MSM) websites that specifically fosters unprotected sex. Ads/profiles were selected randomly based on the American ZIP code of residence (n = 1,316), with a randomly-drawn oversampling of profiles of men who self-identified as heterosexual or “curious” rather than gay or bisexual (n = 118). Data were collected between September 2006 and September 2007. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the conjoint effects of self-identified sexual orientation and preference for having/not having sex while high, on men’s sought-after sexual risk. Analytical comparisons of the four groups showed that, on most measures, the combination of sexual orientation and drug use preference during sex differentiated the men. Generally speaking, gay/bisexual men who advertised online for partners with whom they could have sex while high expressed the greatest interest in risky sexual behaviors (e.g., felching, unprotected oral sex, unprotected anal sex) and various risk-related preferences (e.g., multiple partner sex, anonymous sex, eroticizing ejaculatory fluids). This is especially true when they are compared to their heterosexual/“curious” counterparts whose online profiles were not as likely to indicate a desire for having sex while high.
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