Abstract:
We employ polarization-shaped ultrafast optical pulses to generate photocurrents which only arise if the optically induced coherent polarization is frequency modulated. This frequency modulation is obtained via detuned excitation of light-hole excitons in (110)-oriented GaAs quantum wells. The observed photocurrents vanish for resonant excitation of excitons and reverse their direction with a change of the sign of detuning. Moreover, the currents do not exist for continuous-wave excitation. Our work reveals the existence of a new class of photocurrents and visualizes the complexity of current response tensors. This is helpful for the better understanding of optically induced microscopic transport in semiconductors.

Abstract:
It is demonstrated that the non-instantaneous response of the optically induced coherent polarization tremendously influences the real-space shift of electronic charges in semiconductors. The possibility to coherently control this real-space shift with temporally non-overlapping excitation pulses allows for the observation of a new type of shift current, which only exists for certain polarization-shaped excitation pulses and vanishes in the continuous-wave limit. In contrast to previously studied shift currents, the new current requires a phase mismatch between two orthogonal transition dipole moments and leads, within a nonlinear second-order description, to a tensor which is antisymmetric with respect to the order of the two exciting electric field amplitudes. These observations, which can even be made at room temperature and are expected to occur in a variety of semiconductor crystal classes, contribute to a better understanding of light-matter interaction involving degenerate bands. Thus, they are expected to prove important for future studies of coherent and nonlinear optical effects in semiconductors.

Abstract:
We report on the time-resolved detection of the anomalous velocity, constituting charge carriers moving perpendicular to an electric driving field, in undoped GaAs quantum wells. For this we optically excite the quantum wells with circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses, thereby creating a state which breaks time-inversion symmetry. We then employ a quasi single cycle terahertz pulse as electric driving field to induce the anomalous velocity. The electromagnetic radiation emitted from the anomalous velocity is studied with a sub-picosecond time resolution and reveals intriguing results. We are able to distinguish between intrinsic (linked to the Berry curvature) and extrinsic (linked to scattering) contributions to the anomalous velocity both originating from the valence band and observe local energy space dependence of the anomalous velocity. Our results thus constitute a significant step towards non-invasive probing of the anomalous velocity locally in the full energy/momentum space and enable the investigation of many popular physical effects such as anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect on ultrafast time scales.

Abstract:
GaMnAs-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices are characterized by in-plane and perpendicular-toplane magnetotransport at low temperatures. Perpendicular-to-plane transport reveals the typical tunneling magnetotransport (TMR) signal. Interestingly, a similar TMR signature is observed in the in-plane transport signal. Here, low-ohmic shunting of the MTJ by the top contact results in significant perpendicular-to-plane current paths. This effect allows the determination of TMR ratios of MTJs based on a simplified in-plane measurement. However, the same effect can lead to an inaccurate determination of resistance area products and spin torque critical current densities from perpendicular-to-plane magnetotransport experiments on MTJ pillar structures.

Abstract:
The precessional magnetization dynamics of GaMnAs thin films are characterized by broadband network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in a coplanar geometry at cryogenic temperatures. The FMR frequencies are characterized as function of in-plane field angle and field amplitude. Using an extended Kittel model of the FMR dispersion the magnetic film parameters such as saturation magnetization and anisotropies are derived. The modification of the FMR behavior and of the magnetic parameters of the thin film upon annealing is analyzed.

Abstract:
Non-adiabatic pumping of discrete charges, realized by a dynamical quantum dot in an AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure, is studied under influence of a perpendicular magnetic field. Application of an oscillating voltage in the GHz-range to one of two top gates, crossing a narrow wire and confining a quantum dot, leads to quantized pumped current plateaus in the gate characteristics. The regime of pumping one single electron is traced back to the diverse tunneling processes into and out-of the dot. Extending the theory to multiple electrons allows to investigate conveniently the pumping characteristics in an applied magnetic field. In this way, a qualitatively different behavior between pumping even or odd numbers of electrons is extracted.

Abstract:
We studied the magneto-transport properties of graphene prepared by exfoliation on a III V semiconductor substrate. Tuneability of the carrier density of graphene was achieved by using a doped GaAs substrate as a back-gate. A GaAs/AlAs multilayer, designed to render the exfoliated graphene flakes visible, also provides the required back-gate insulation. Good tuneability of the graphene carrier density is obtained, and the typical Dirac resistance characteristic is observed despite the limited height of the multilayer barrier compared to the usual SiO2 oxide barrier on doped silicon. In a magnetic field weak localization effects as well as the quantum Hall effect of a graphene monolayer are studied.

Abstract:
We advance spin noise spectroscopy to the ultimate limit of single spin detection. This technique enables the measurement of the spin dynamic of a single heavy hole localized in a flat (InGa)As quantum dot. Magnetic field and light intensity dependent studies reveal even at low magnetic fields a strong magnetic field dependence of the longitudinal heavy hole spin relaxation time with an extremely long $T_1$ of $\ge$ 180 $\mu$s at 31 mT and 5 K. The wavelength dependence of the spin noise power discloses for finite light intensities an inhomogeneous single quantum dot spin noise spectrum which is explained by charge fluctuations in the direct neighborhood of the quantum dot. The charge fluctuations are corroborated by the distinct intensity dependence of the effective spin relaxation rate.

Abstract:
We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

Abstract:
We show that quantum resistance standards made of transferred graphene reach the uncertainty of semiconductor devices, the current reference system in metrology. A large graphene device (150 \times 30 \mum2), exfoliated and transferred onto GaAs, revealed a quantization with a precision of (-5.1 \pm 6.3) \times 10-9 accompanied by a vanishing longitudinal resistance at current levels exceeding 10 \muA. While such performance had previously only been achieved with epitaxially grown graphene, our experiments demonstrate that transfer steps, inevitable for exfoliated graphene or graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), are compatible with the requirements of high quality quantum resistance standards.