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What Kinds of Accretion Disks Are There in the Nuclei of Radio Galaxies?
Osamu Kaburaki,Takanobu Nankou,Naoya Tamura,Kiyoaki Wajima
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/62.5.1177
Abstract: It seems to be a widely accepted opinion that the types of accretion disks (or flows) generally realized in the nuclei of radio galaxies and in further lower mass-accretion rate nuclei are inner, hot, optically thin, radiatively inefficient accretion flows (RIAFs) surrounded by outer, cool, optically thick, standard type accretion disks. However, observational evidence for the existence of such outer cool disks in these nuclei is rather poor. Instead, recent observations sometimes suggest the existence of inner cool disks of non-standard type, which develop in the region very close to their central black holes. Taking NGC 4261 as a typical example of such light eating nuclei, for which both flux data ranging from radio to X-ray and data for the counterjet occultation are available, we examine the plausibility of such a picture for the accretion states as mentioned above, based on model predictions. It is shown that the explanation of the gap seen in the counterjet emission in terms of the free-free absorption by an outer standard disk is unrealistic, and moreover, the existence itself of such an outer standard disk seems very implausible. Instead, the model of RIAF in an ordered magnetic field (so called resistive RIAF model) can well serve to explain the emission gap in terms of the synchrotron absorption, as well as to reproduce the observed features of the overall spectral energy distribution (SED). This model also predicts that the RIAF state starts directly from an interstellar hot gas phase at around the Bondi radius and terminates at the inner edge whose radius is about 100 times the Schwartzschild radii. Therefore, there is a good possibility for a cool disk to develop within this innermost region.
A Fanaroff-Riley Type I Candidate in Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy Mrk 1239
Akihiro Doi,Kiyoaki Wajima,Yoshiaki Hagiwara,Makoto Inoue
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/798/2/L30
Abstract: We report finding kiloparsec-scale radio emissions aligned with parsec-scale jet structures in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy Mrk 1239 using the Very Large Array and the Very Long Baseline Array. Thus, this radio-quiet NLS1 has a jet-producing central engine driven by essentially the same mechanism as that of other radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Most of the radio luminosity is concentrated within 100 parsecs and overall radio morphology looks edge-darkened; the estimated jet kinetic power is comparable to Fanaroff--Riley Type I radio galaxies. The conversion from accretion to jet power appears to be highly inefficient in this highly accreting low-mass black hole system compared with that in a low-luminosity AGN with similar radio power driven by a sub-Eddington, high-mass black hole. Thus, Mrk 1239 is a crucial probe to the unexplored parameter spaces of central engines for a jet formation.
Free-Free Absorption and the Unified Scheme
Seiji Kameno,Makoto Inoue,Kiyoaki Wajima,Satoko Sawada-Satoh,Zhi-Qinag Shen
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1071/AS03037
Abstract: We report Very-Long-Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 2.3, 8.4, and 15.4 GHz towards nine GHz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) sources. One Seyfert 1 galaxy, one Seyfert 2 galaxy, three radio galaxies, and four quasars were included in our survey. We obtained spatial distributions of the Free-Free Absorption (FFA) opacity with milliarcsec resolutions for all sources. It is found that type-1 (Seyfert 1 and quasars) and type-2 (Seyfert 2 and radio galaxies) sources showed different distributions of the FFA opacities. The type-1 sources tend to show more asymmetric opacity distributions towards a double lobe, while those of the type-2 sources are rather symmetric. Our results imply that the different viewing angle of the jet causes the difference of FFA opacity along the external absorber. This idea supports the unified scheme between quasars and radio galaxies, proposed by Barthel (1989).
Short-Term Variability of PKS1510-089
Akiko Kadota,Kenta Fujisawa,Satoko Sawada-Satoh,Kiyoaki Wajima,Akihiro Doi
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: We searched a short-term radio variability in an active galactic nucleus PKS 1510-089. A daily flux monitoring for 143 days at 8.4 GHz was performed, and VLBI observations at 8.4, 22, and 43 GHz were carried out 4 times during the flux monitoring period. As a result, variability with time scale of 20 to 30 days was detected. The variation patterns were well alike on three frequencies, moreover those at 22 and 43 GHz were synchronized. These properties support that this short-term variability is an intrinsic one. The Doppler factor estimated from the variability time scale is 47. Since the Doppler factor is not extraordinary large for AGN, such intrinsic variability with time scale less than 30 days would exist in other AGNs.
Short-Term Radio Variability and Parsec-Scale Structure in a Gamma-Ray Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H 0323+342
Kiyoaki Wajima,Kenta Fujisawa,Masaaki Hayashida,Naoki Isobe,Takafumi Ishida,Yoshinori Yonekura
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/781/2/75
Abstract: We made simultaneous single-dish and very long baseline interferometer (VLBI) observations of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) 1H 0323+342, showing gamma-ray activity revealed by Fermi/LAT observations. We found significant variation of the total flux density at 8 GHz on the time scale of one month by the single-dish monitoring. The total flux density varied by 5.5% in 32 days, which is comparable to the gamma-ray variability time scale, corresponding to the variability brightness temperature of $7.0 \times 10^{11}$ K. The source consists of central and southeastern components on the parsec (pc) scale. The flux of only the central component decreased in the same way as the total flux density, indicating that the short-term radio variability, and probably the gamma-ray emitting region, is associated with this component. From the VLBI observations we obtained the brightness temperatures of greater than $(5.2 \pm 0.3) \times 10^{10}$ K, and derived the equipartition Doppler factor of greater than 1.7, the variability Doppler factor of 2.2, and the 8 GHz radio power of $10^{24.6}$ W Hz$^{-1}$. Combining them we conclude that acceleration of radio jets and creation of high-energy particles are ongoing in the central engine, and that the apparent very radio-loud feature of the source is due to the Doppler-boosting effect, resulting in the intrinsic radio loudness to be an order of magnitude smaller than the observed values. We also conclude that the pc-scale jet represents recurrent activity from the the spectral fitting and the estimated kinematic age of pc- and kpc-scale extended components with different position angle.
Very Long Baseline Array Imaging of Parsec-scale Radio Emissions in Nearby Radio-quiet Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies
Akihiro Doi,Keiichi Asada,Kenta Fujisawa,Hiroshi Nagai,Yoshiaki Hagiwara,Kiyoaki Wajima,Makoto Inoue
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/765/1/69
Abstract: We conducted Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations of seven nearby narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies at 1.7 GHz (18cm) with milli-arcsecond resolution. This is the first systematic very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) study focusing on the central parsec-scale regions of radio-quiet NLS1s. Five of the seven were detected at a brightness temperature of >~5x10^6 K and contain radio cores with high brightness temperatures of >6x10^7 K, indicating a nonthermal process driven by jet-producing central engines as is observed in radio-loud NLS1s and other active galactic nucleus (AGN) classes. VLBA images of MRK 1239, MRK 705, and MRK 766 exhibit parsec-scale jets with clear linear structures. A large portion of the radio power comes from diffuse emission components that are distributed within the nuclear regions (<~300 pc), which is a common characteristic throughout the observed NLS1s. Jet kinetic powers limited by the Eddington limit may be insufficient to allow the jets escape to kiloparsec scales for these radio-quiet NLS1s with low-mass black holes of <~10^7 M_sun.
Dense Plasma Torus in the GPS Galaxy NGC 1052
Seiji Kameno,Makoto Inoue,Kiyoaki Wajima,Satoko Sawada-Satoh,Zhi-Qiang Shen
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1071/AS03003
Abstract: We report results from nearly simultaneous pentachromatic VLBI observations towa rds a nearby GPS galaxy NGC 1052. The observations at 1.6 and 4.8 GHz with VSOP, and at 2.3, 8.4, and 15.4 GHz wit h VLBA, provide linear resolutions of $\sim 0.1$ pc. Convex spectra of a double-sided jet imply that synchrotron emission is obscured through foreground cold dense plasma, in terms of free--free absorption (FFA). We found a central condensation of the plasma which covers about 0.1 pc and 1 pc of the approaching and receding jets, respectively. A simple model with a geometrically thick plasma torus perpendicular to the jets is established to explain the asymmetric distribution of FFA opacities.
Internal Motion of 6.7-GHz Methanol Masers in H II Region S269
Satoko Sawada-Satoh,Kenta Fujisawa,Koichiro Sugiyama,Kiyoaki Wajima,Mareki Honma
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/65.4.79
Abstract: We present the first internal motion measurement of the 6.7-GHz methanol maser within S269, a small HII region in the outer Galaxy, which was carried out in 2006 and 2011 using the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN). Several maser groups and weak isolated spots were detected in an area spanning by ~200 mas (1000 AU). Three remarkable maser groups are aligned at a position angle of 80 degree. Two of three maser groups were also detected by a previous observation in 1998, which allowed us to study a long-term position variation of maser spots from 1998 to 2011. The angular separation between the two groups increased ~10 mas, which corresponds to an expansion velocity of ~10 km s^{-1}. Some velocity gradient (~10^{-2} km s^{-1} mas^{-1}) in the overall distribution was found. The internal motion between the maser groups support the hypothesis that the methanol masers in S269 could trace a bipolar outflow.
Removal of Ag(I) from Aqueous Solution by Japanese Natural Clinoptilolite  [PDF]
Takaaki Wajima
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2016.64042
Abstract: The present study examined the adsorption of silver ion in aqueous solution onto natural clinoptilolite zeolite from Futatsui Mine, Akita Prefecture, Japan. The effects of various parameters, i.e., solution pH, adsorbent dosage, adsorption time, silver ion solution concentration, and temperature, on silver ion adsorption process onto clinoptilolite were examined. Additionally, the thermodynamics of the silver ion adsorption process was investigated. The optimum pH for silver adsorption was determined to be around 4.0. The adsorption process could be well described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The calculated maximum adsorption capacity was 0.64 mmol/g. Adsorption kinetics studies were also conducted. The results showed that the adsorption process preferentially followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model over the pseudo-first-order model. Furthermore, with decreasing aqueous solution temperatures, the adsorption kinetics became slower and the amount of silver ion adsorbed increased. The thermodynamic values, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0, indicated that adsorption was an exo-thermic and spontaneous process.
Preparation of HCl Gas Sorbent from Paper Sludge  [PDF]
Takaaki Wajima
Natural Resources (NR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2017.84017
Abstract: Paper sludge (PS) is generated as an industrial waste during the manufacture of recycled paper products, and amounts discharged globally are increasing annually. On the other hands, hydrogen chloride (HCl) is an acidic pollutant that is present in the flue gases of most municipal and hazardous waste incinerators. In this study, the removal of hydrogen chloride gas using the product from paper sludge at high temperatures (700oC) using a fixed-bed flow-type reactor was investigated. PS can be granulated with distilled water using granulators, and the particle shapes can be kept after calcination and alkali reaction. Calcined PS and the product after alkali reaction of calcined PS have amorphous phases and katoite (Ca3Al2(SiO4)(OH)8) phase, respectively, and both of these indicate HCl removal ability at high temperature (700oC). The product from calcined PS via alkali reaction has higher HCl fixation ability (78 mg/g) than calcined PS. Removal experiments for HCl gas showed that the removal process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics rather than pseudo-first-order kinetics. These results suggested that the product particles with HCl gas removal ability at high temperature can be prepared from PS using calcination and alkali reaction.
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