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Methane as an effective hydrogen source for single-layer graphene synthesis on Cu foil by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition
Yong Seung Kim,Jae Hong Lee,Young Duck Kim,Sahng-Kyoon Jerng,Kisu Joo,Eunho Kim,Jongwan Jung,Euijoon Yoon,Yun Daniel Park,Sunae Seo,Seung-Hyun Chun
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1039/C2NR33034B
Abstract: A single-layer graphene is synthesized on Cu foil in the absence of H2 flow by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). In lieu of an explicit H2 flow, hydrogen species are produced during methane decomposition process into their active species (CHx<4), assisted by the plasma. Notably, the early stage of growth depends strongly on the plasma power. The resulting grain size (the nucleation density) has a maximum (minimum) at 50 W and saturates when the plasma power is higher than 120 W because hydrogen partial pressures are effectively tuned by a simple control of the plasma power. Raman spectroscopy and transport measurements show that decomposed methane alone can provide sufficient amount of hydrogen species for high-quality graphene synthesis by PECVD.
Ordered Growth of Topological Insulator Bi2Se3 Thin Films on Dielectric Amorphous SiO2 by MBE
Sahng-Kyoon Jerng,Kisu Joo,Youngwook Kim,Sang-Moon Yoon,Jae Hong Lee,Miyoung Kim,Jun Sung Kim,Euijoon Yoon,Seung-Hyun Chun,Yong Seung Kim
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1039/C3NR03032F
Abstract: Topological insulators (TIs) are exotic materials which have topologically protected states on the surface due to the strong spin-orbit coupling. However, a lack of ordered growth of TI thin films on amorphous dielectrics and/or insulators presents a challenge for applications of TI-junctions. We report the growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films on amorphous SiO2 by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). To achieve the ordered growth of Bi2Se3 on amorphous surface, the formation of other phases at the interface is suppressed by Se passivation. Structural characterizations reveal that Bi2Se3 films are grown along the [001] direction with a good periodicity by van der Waals epitaxy mechanism. Weak anti-localization effect of Bi2Se3 films grown on amorphous SiO2 shows modulated electrical property by the gating response. Our approach for ordered growth of Bi2Se3 on amorphous dielectric surface presents considerable advantages for TI-junctions with amorphous insulator or dielectric thin films.
Gynecological tumors in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS)  [PDF]
Arisa Ueki, Iori Kisu, Kouji Banno, Megumi Yanokura, Kennta Masuda, Yusuke Kobayashi, Akira Hirasawa, Daisuke Aoki
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2011.13012
Abstract: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of hamartomatous polyposis in the gastrointestinal tract and melanin-pigmented macules on the skin mucosa. The responsible gene is a tumor suppressor, STK11/LKB1, on chromosome 19p13.3. PJS complicates with benign and malignant tumors in various organs. In gynecology, there has been a particular focus on complications of PJS with sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT) and minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA), which are rare diseases. Approximately 36% of patients with SCTAT are complicated with PJS and these patients are characterized by multifocal, bilateral, small and benign lesions that develop into tumors with mucinous to serous ratios of 8:1. In addition, 10% of cases of MDA are complicated with PJS and mutation of STK11, the gene responsible for PJS, has a major effect on onset and prognosis. The disease concept of lobular endocervical glandular hyper-plasia (LEGH) has recently been proposed and LEGH is thought to be a potential premalignant lesion of MDA, however, the relationship between PJS and LEGH remains unclear. Several case reports of PJS patients complicated with gynecological tumors have been published and further studies are needed to determine the underlying causes
Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Water and Ethanol Extracts Obtained from Dried Boxthorn (Lycium chinensis) Fruit  [PDF]
Joo-Shin Kim
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.39173
Abstract: Antioxidant activities of W and E extracts obtained from dried boxthorn (Lycium chinensis) fruit were measured based on DPPH radical scavenging and reducing powers, and their relationships with total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity were investigated. A linear correlation among antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and flavonoid content was observed in concentration-dependent mode. Both extracts showed > 95% DPPH radical-scavenging activity and the higher reducing power of 3200 ppm at the same concentration. The antioxidant potential of both extracts were compared with those of commercial antioxidants such as BHA, BHT, TBHQ, ferulic acid, and α-tocopherol using H2O2 scavenging activity, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, inhibition of hemolysis of rat erythrocyte induced by peroxyl radicals, and inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation using rat brain tissue. In the H2O2 scavenging activity, E extract showed a comparable significant antioxidant power, comparable to commercial antioxidants, and no signifi-cant difference (P > 0.05) was found between W and E extracts on inhibition of the linoleic acid peroxidation. Whereas W extract exhibited a significant power in the hemolysis of rat erythrocytes, none was observed in E extract. In the Fe-induced lipid peroxidation using rat brain tissue, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was found between both ex-tracts, showing a comparable activity with those of synthetic antioxidants. Both W and E extracts of dried boxthorn (Lycium chinensis) fruit may have a potential as natural antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants.
Korean potential approach to the multi-lateralization of the nuclear fuel cycle  [PDF]
Joo Hyun Moon
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.431120
Abstract: To prevent the worldwide dissemination of nuclear sensitive technologies and strengthen the safeguards of the nuclear facilities at the same time, the international society has begun to discuss the “multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach (MNA)”. This kind of discussion will be more vigorous due to the recent nuclear activeties in Iran and North Korean and the Fukushima nuclear power plants accidents. If the MNA would be implemented someday, not even in the immediate future, Korea could be subject to a serious situation since it imports 100% of raw material for nuclear fuel. Hence, this paper reviews the 12 previous MNA proposals and discusses a potential Korean approach to MNA that Korea is able to take.
Preliminary Evaluation for Comparative Antioxidant Activity in the Water and Ethanol Extracts of Dried Citrus Fruit (Citrus unshiu) Peel Using Chemical and Biochemical in Vitro Assays  [PDF]
Joo-Shin Kim
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.42025

Comparative antioxidant activities of the water and ethanol extracts obtained from dried citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peel were determined using chemical and biochemical in vitro assays. Chemical assays were used for evaluation of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and reducing power of both extracts and their total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents and antioxidant activities were investigated. Biochemical assays were performed to evaluate the inhibition activities of AAPH-induced rat RBC hemolysis and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation using rat brain tissue cells. Linear correlation between the antioxidant activities of both extracts were determined by chemical assays, and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents was observed in concentration-dependent mode. Both extracts showed >95% DPPH radical scavenging and >85% hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and higher reducing capacity at the same level of 3200 ppm. In the inhibition activity of AAPH-induced hemolysis, water extracts showed a strong activity in concentration-dependent mode up to 1600 ppm with no statistical difference found between 1600 and 3200 ppm (P > 0.05). In the inhibition activity of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, ethanol extracts showed the higher inhibition percentage of lipid peroxidation than those of water extracts at the same concentration with no significant difference (P > 0.05) found in the range of 800 to 3200 ppm. The extracts of dried Citrus unshiu peel may be considered as potential antioxidant ingredients of functional food depending on the conditions at which reactive oxygen species are implicated.

Hospice and Palliative Care Services in South Korea Supported by the National Health Insurance (NHI) Program  [PDF]
Yong Joo Rhee
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.76082
Abstract: Previous main body of research on end-life-care in South Korea has focused on developing services quality in hospital settings or service payment system in National Health Insurance Program. The delivery system of hospice and palliative care services has evolved in diverse ways but there is little research on reviewing the past history of development and whole picture of them so far. So, the aim of this study is to review the old hospice and palliative care system and also to introduce the current one supported by the National Health Insurance Program in South Korea. The palliative care or hospice services in South Korea have been available in diverse settings and provided by different organizations (i.e. catholic hospitals or charity organizations). Finally, it was set up in 2004 that the hospice team or official Palliative Care Units (PCUs) was established in hospitals, in order to meet the end-of-life care for the patients with terminal cancer under the Cancer Control Act. The current hospice and palliative care services such as pain management, bereavement services, and counselling can be reimbursed by National Health Insurance program since 2008. Nevertheless hospice and palliative care services are available to dying patients, yet the utilization rate of hospice and palliative care services or the length of stay in the palliative care unit (PCU) is still relatively short compared to other country systems. South Korea is undergoing several efforts to expand the services in PCU along with the development of quality indicators for PCU. Hospice and palliative care services are still new in the health care system and unfamiliar to the public so it requires raising awareness for medical professionals and the public as well as further research.
Efficacy and Safety of Low Target Pressure Trabeculectomy: 2-Year Clinical Results  [PDF]
Seung Joo Ha
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2018.81007
Purpose: To compare the success and complication rates of low target pressure trabeculectomy (LTT) and conventional trabeculectomy (CT). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with consecutive patients undergoing trabeculectomy. Twelve eyes of 12 patients underwent LTT, and 17 eyes of 17 patients underwent CT. Surgical success was defined as meeting each target intraocular pressure (IOP) without additional medication or further glaucoma surgery. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate survival rate. Incidences of surgical complications were also assessed. Results: The median postoperative IOP 2 years after surgery were 10.0 mmHg (interquartile range [IQR] 8.5 - 12.0 mmHg) in the LTT group and 16.0 mmHg (IQR, 14.0 - 18.5 mmHg) in the CT group (P = 0.000). Estimated survival rates for patients who underwent the two types of trabeculectomy were significantly different with all IOP criteria of 10, 12 and 14 mmHg (P < 0.01 for all), except IOP ≤ 18 mmHg. Vision-threatening complications were not found in either group during the observation period. Late-onset bleb leaks occurred in only two eyes in the LTT group but were well treated with autologous blood injection and amniotic membrane transplantation. Conclusion: LTT provided more chances to maintain low postoperative IOP and had no more vision-threatening complication than those of CT.
Oncofertility in Gynecologic Malignant Tumors  [PDF]
Masataka Adachi, Kouji Banno, Iori Kisu, Megumi Yanokura, Moito Iijima, Takashi Takeda, Kiyoko Umene, Yuya Nogami, Eiichiro Tominaga, Daisuke Aoki
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.614128
Abstract: Long-term survival is the priority in treatment of patients with malignant tumors. In the field of gynecology, fertility preservation has also recently become an important objective due to improved treatment outcomes and different needs of patients. Methods for fertility preservation include cervical conization, ovarian protection against radiation or chemotherapy for ovarian cancer since the ovary is hypersensitive to cancer therapies, treatment of gynecological cancer during pregnancy, and cryopreservation of oocytes, embryos or ovarian tissue before treatment of malignant tumors. Radical trachelectomy for early cervical cancer and treatment with medroxy progesterone acetate for early endometrial carcinoma are also options for fertility preservation, but the efficacy and risk of recurrence have yet to be fully evaluated. The first childbirth following uterine transplantation was also achieved last year and this success has expanded the potential for pregnancy and delivery among cancer survivors.
Money Supply and Inflation in Malawi: An Econometric Investigation
Kisu Simwaka,Perks Ligoya,Grant Kabango,Mtendere Chikonda
The International Journal of Applied Economics and Finance , 2012,
Abstract: This study examined the relative importance of monetary factors in driving inflation in Malawi. A stylized inflation model is specified that includes standard monetary variables, the exchange rate and supply-side factors. The results indicated that inflation in Malawi is a result of both monetary and supply-side factors. Monetary supply growth drives inflation with lags of about 3 to 6 months. On the other hand, exchange rate adjustments play a relatively more significant role in fuelling cost-push inflation. It is further observed that slumps in production generate inflationary pressures. At policy level, the Reserve Bank should ensure that broad money supply expands in line with nominal gross domestic product. However, it must be emphasized that monetary policy alone might not address other exogenous structural shocks considered as additional causes of inflation. What monetary policy can do is to slowdown the rate of inflation expectations by ensuring that prices in other categories of non-food items slow down. For example, it has been shown that exchange rate shocks have a strong effect on inflation. Given this finding, exchange rate stability is key to anchoring inflation expectations, as the exchange rate pass-through in Malawi is relatively high. Finally, measures to control inflation must also emphasize enhancing production and supply, especially of food. Thus inflationary control should aim at policies which are directed at both monetary and supply factors.
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