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A large point-source outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium linked to chicken, pork and salad rolls from a Vietnamese bakery in Sydney
Sophie Norton,Essi Huhtinen,Stephen Conaty,Kirsty Hope
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: In January 2011, Sydney South West Public Health Unit was notified of a large number of people presenting with gastroenteritis over two days at a local hospital emergency department (ED).Methods: Case-finding was conducted through hospital EDs and general practitioners, which resulted in the notification of 154 possible cases, from which 83 outbreak cases were identified. Fifty-eight cases were interviewed about demographics, symptom profile and food histories. Stool samples were collected and submitted for analysis. An inspection was conducted at a Vietnamese bakery and food samples were collected and submitted for analysis. Further case ascertainment occurred to ensure control measures were successful.Results: Of the 58 interviewed cases, the symptom profile included diarrhoea (100%), fever (79.3%) and vomiting (89.7%). Salmonella Typhimurium multiple-locus-variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) type 3-10-8-9-523 was identified in 95.9% (47/49) of stool samples. Cases reported consuming chicken, pork or salad rolls from a single Vietnamese bakery. Environmental swabs detected widespread contamination with Salmonella at the premises.Discussion: This was a large point-source outbreak associated with the consumption of Vietnamese-style pork, chicken and salad rolls. These foods have been responsible for significant outbreaks in the past. The typical ingredients of raw egg butter or mayonnaise and pate are often implicated, as are the food-handling practices in food outlets. This indicates the need for education in better food-handling practices, including the benefits of using safer products. Ongoing surveillance will monitor the success of new food regulations introduced in New South Wales during 2011 for improving food-handling practices and reducing foodborne illness.
Use of prohibition order after a large outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by a norovirus among function attendees
Praveena Gunaratnam,Catriona Furlong,Kirsty Hope,Leena Jupta
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: In May 2011, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred among guests attending two functions (Function A and B) at a local function centre in Sydney, Australia. The Sydney South West Public Health Unit and the New South Wales (NSW) Food Authority sought to determine the cause of the outbreak and implement control measures.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was planned. A complete guest list was unavailable, so guests who could be contacted were asked to provide details of other guests. Attendee demographics, symptom profile and food histories were obtained using a standard response questionnaire. Stool samples were requested from symptomatic guests. The NSW Food Authority conducted a site inspection.Results: Of those interviewed, 73% of Function A guests and 62% of Function B guests were ill, with mean incubation times of 27 and 23 hours respectively. Diarrhoea was the most common symptom. Three stool samples and four environmental swabs were positive for norovirus. One food handler reported feeling ill before and during the functions. A prohibition order was used to stop food handlers implicated in the outbreak from preparing food.Discussion: This outbreak strongly suggests transmission of norovirus, possibly caused by an infected food handler. Regulatory measures such as prohibition orders can be effective in enforcing infection control standards and minimising ongoing public health risk.
Measles transmission in health care waiting rooms: implications for public health response
Kirsty Hope,Rowena Boyd,Stephen Conaty,Patrick Maywood
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Seventeen cases of locally acquired measles occurred in South Western Sydney and Sydney local health districts between July and October 2011. Three of the cases were known to have at least one dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Seven cases were infected within a health care setting waiting room by five index cases. Current national protocols require follow-up of all susceptible contacts in the same waiting room for any length of time for up to two hours after the index case has left.Methods: Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Information included: demographics, illness and activities during the exposure and infectious periods. Health care settings provided arrival and discharge times, maps of floor layouts and location of patients during stay.Results: All health care setting transmission occurred in cases who were present at the same time as their index cases, with cross-over time ranging from 20 to 254 minutes. No index case was isolated. Index cases were between day four and six of illness when transmission occurred. None of the five index cases and one of seven secondary cases had received at least one dose of MMR vaccine. Of the seven secondary cases, two were one year of age, one was 17 years old and four were between 30 and 39 years old.Conclusion: As Australia moves towards measles elimination, follow-up of cases is important; however, with limited public health resources a targeted response is vital. In this small but well-documented series of secondary cases acquired in a health care setting, all were infected following direct, proximate contact of at least 20 minutes. Changes to the national guidelines may be warranted, ensuring that limited resources are focused on following up contacts at greatest risk of disease.
Pertussis vaccination in Child Care Workers: room for improvement in coverage, policy and practice
Kirsty Hope, Michelle Butler, Peter D Massey, Patrick Cashman, David N Durrheim, Jody Stephenson, April Worley
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-98
Abstract: A cross sectional survey of all child care centre directors in the Hunter New England (HNE) area of northern NSW was conducted in 2010 using a computer assisted telephone interviewing service.Ninety-eight percent (319/325) of child care centres identified within the HNE area participated in the survey. Thirty-five percent (113/319) of centres indicated that they had policies concerning respiratory illness in staff members. Sixty-three percent (202/319) of centres indicated that they kept a record of staff vaccination, however, of the 170 centre’s who indicated they updated their records, 74% (125/170) only updated records if a staff member notified them. Of centres with records, 58% indicated that fewer than half of their staff were vaccinated.Many childcare workers have not had a recent pertussis immunisation. This potentially places young children at risk at an age when they are most vulnerable to severe disease. With increasing use of child care, national accreditation and licensing requirements need to monitor the implementation of policies on child care worker vaccination. Higher levels of vaccination would assist in reducing the risk of pertussis cases and subsequent outbreaks in child care centres.The resurgence of pertussis (whooping cough) in Australia has attracted community concern, especially with recent deaths in two infants from the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) [1,2]. Although pertussis incidence declined after the widespread use of whole cell pertussis vaccines in the mid-1940’s, this disease remains an important cause of morbidity in Australia, especially in young infants [3].This bacterial infection of the respiratory tract, caused by Bordetella pertussis, usually begins with coryza (nasal conjestion), fatigue and sometimes a mild fever. A cough then develops, which is often paroxysmal, may be followed by a deep gasp (or whoop). Pertussis affects people of all ages with infants being at greatest risk of severe disease, complications, ho
Estimating the Disease Burden of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection in Hunter New England, Northern New South Wales, Australia, 2009
Fatimah S. Dawood,Kirsty G. Hope,David N. Durrheim,Rodney Givney,Alicia M. Fry,Craig B. Dalton
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009880
Abstract: On May 26, 2009, the first confirmed case of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus (pH1N1) infection in Hunter New England (HNE), New South Wales (NSW), Australia (population 866,000) was identified. We used local surveillance data to estimate pH1N1-associated disease burden during the first wave of pH1N1 circulation in HNE.
New Griottes of the African Sahel: Intersectionalities and Women’s Narrative Authority in Sanou Bernadette Dao’s La Dernière èpouse & A?cha Fofona’s Mariage on Copie  [PDF]
Joyce Hope Scott
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/als.2016.44010
Abstract: African women have played a central role in the development of oral literary traditions of countries of the African Sahel historically, yet very few have actually written works and had them published. Among the few who have recently emerged, some have brought new perspectives on historical and contemporary issues as well as innovative techniques in style and narrative structure. Two novels in particular by contemporary women writers from the African Sahel engage issues of women’s agency and the power of narrative authority to interrogate the structures of intersectionality that impact women’s lives: La Dernière épouse (The Last Wife), by Sanou Bernadette Dao of Burkina Faso, and Mariage on Copie (Images of Marriage), by A?cha Fofana of Mali. These works confront the discursive authority of male fictive texts of the post-colonial experience as their female characters seize la parole (the word) to remap representations of traditional male/female relationships.
Travel as Subversion in 19th Century Black Women’s Narratives  [PDF]
Joyce Hope Scott
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/als.2017.54009
Abstract: Race and gender proved to be two daunting obstacles for African American and Afro-Caribbean women in the 19th century; thus success outside those domains often depended on women’s ability to keep a strong feminist stance. Prescribed female roles and racial prejudice hindered many in their ambitions and endeavors. This paper argues that some 19th century black women’s narratives, however, point to a body of resistance texts in contention with prescribed roles for such women. The textual personas of such narratives transcend the confines of home and racially-configured communities. In fact, the narratives foreground a female agency where personal worth and identities are reconstructed through traveling and working in the global arenas and economies of the 19th century world.
Redetermination of l-tryptophan hydrobromide
Kirsty Stewart
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2009, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536809017322
Abstract: The redetermined crystal structure of the title compound, C11H13N2O2+·Br , is reported. Data collection at 100 K about three crystallographic axes resulted in a crystal structure with significantly higher precision in comparison to the two-dimensional data collected at 176 K [Takigawa et al. [(1966) Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn, 39, 2369–2378]. The carboxyl group and indole ring system are planar, with maximum deviations of 0.002 (2) and 0.007 (2) , respectively, and make an angle of 70.17 (1)° with each other. The molecules are arranged in double layers of carboxyl and amino groups parallel to the ab plane, stabilized by an extensive network of N—H...Br and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The polar layer is held together by a network of three N—H...Br hydrogen bonds and one O—H...Br hydrogen bond. In the non-polar layer, the indole rings are linked mainly by electrostatic N—H...C interactions between the polarized bond N—H (H is δ+) of the pyrrole unit and two of the ring C atoms (δ ) of the benzene rings of adjacent molecules. The distances of these electrostatic interactions are 2.57 and 2.68 , respectively. C—H...O and C—H...π interactions are also present.
Absence et désir : moteurs de création dans Amandes et melon de Madeleine Monette
Kirsty Bell
Synergies Canada , 2012,
Abstract: Le roman Amandes et melon de Madeleine Monette joue sur le rapport intime qui se tisse entre l’absence et le désir, mettant en scène une artiste, Elvire, qui a recours à la peinture pour comprendre l’absence d’un être aimé. Le roman explore ainsi les fa ons dont la narration et l’image visuelle peuvent évoquer l’absence ainsi que les multiples fa ons dont l’absence et le désir s’informent dans et par la création artistique. De plus, c’est souvent par le genre pictural de la nature morte que le roman affiche sa conception du rapport qui existe entre l’art, l’absence et le désir. Cette analyse se penche sur ces phénomènes afin de cerner les ressemblances et les dissemblances entre les pratiques littéraires de l’écrivaine et les pratiques plastiques du personnage artiste que l’écrivaine met en scène.
Assessment and Management of Invasive Alien Predators
Kirsty Park
Ecology and Society , 2004,
Abstract: Although invasive alien species have been identified as the second greatest threat to biodiversity after habitat loss, characterizing and quantifying their impacts on native species and habitats remains a fundamental problem in conservation biology. Here, I review the techniques that are currently used to assess the impact of invasive alien species on biodiversity, highlighting both their uses in invasive species ecology and their limitations in establishing a causal relationship. Adopting a hypothesis-driven experimental approach to impact assessment, and to eradication efforts through adaptive management, would benefit our ecological understanding of invasive species without delaying critical management action that could reduce the spread of invasive species populations
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