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Being a Next of Kin—Experiences of Burden and Quality of Life  [PDF]
Elisabeth Liedstr?m, Annica Kihlgren, Kirsti Skovdahl, Jenny Windahl
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.44032

Aim and Objectives: To increase the understanding of next of kin’s life situation in the context of supporting persons who are long term ill, disabled and/or older by describing their experienced burden and quality of life and also the relationship between QoL, burden and socioeconomic variables. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive and correlative design. Eighty-four next of kin answered two questionnaires: the Caregiver Burden Scale and the Subjective Quality of Life. Results: Next of kin experienced a high burden in their life situation although they, at the same time, experienced a good quality of life. In the results gender differences were found. Females next of kin to a higher extent were disappointed, more emotionally involved, and they also estimated their economic situation as more unsatisfactory than the males next of kin. Conclusion: Healthcare personnel meet next of kin, persons in need of care, within all healthcare and social care in society. Therefore it is important to have a general knowledge and ability to understand the next of kin’s life situation, thus making it possible to focus the nursing interventions on individual support regardless of the care receiver’s diagnosis.

”Med mobilen i lomma” P r rendes erfaringer n r en av deres n re d r i sykehjem
May Helen Midtbust,Else Lykkeslet,Kirsti Skovdahl
Nordisk Tidsskrift for Helseforskning , 2011,
Abstract: I dag og i rene fremover har helsevesenet store omsorgsutfordringer knyttet til kningen av antall eldre i befolkningen. En stor andel eldre avslutter livet i sykehjem, og de fleste har p r rende hos seg i tiden rundt d dsfallet. Hensikten med studien var ke forst elsen for hvordan det erfares v re p r rende ved livets slutt i sykehjem, og f kunnskap om hvordan helsepersonell kan bist familien i prosessen. Data ble samlet ved hjelp av semistrukturerte, individuelle intervju av seks p r rende som nylig erfarte miste en av sine n re i sykehjem. De p r rende ble rekruttert fra to forskjellige sykehjem. Resultatet viser at p r rende opplever at d den i sykehjem kan v re uforutsigbar og fremmed. Svingninger i sykdomsforl p og usikkerhet i forhold til tidsaspektet i forventet levetid, f rte til at p r rende alltid m tte v re tilgjenglig. N r m te med d den for mange er fremmed, beskriver p r rende behovet for trygghet i en ukjent situasjon.
Consequences of Working in Eldercare during Organizational Changes and Cut Backs While Education and Clinical Supervision Was Provided: A Mixed Methods Study  [PDF]
Birgitta Fl?ckman, Kirsti Skovdahl, Ingegerd Fagerberg, Mona Kihlgren, Annica Kihlgren
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.59086
Abstract: Background: Reorganization and downsizing can disrupt a competent staff and conflicts can arise between what the employee is being asked to do and their knowledge and competences. Reduced job satisfaction among nursing home staff with increased workload and strain can occur. Aim and Objectives: The aim was to investigate the organizational climate and prevalence of burnout symptoms among caregivers over time in three Swedish nursing homes (NH I-III) undergoing organizational changes, while education and clinical supervision were provided. Design: The study design combines qualitative and quantitative methods in a longitudinal two-year follow-up project in NH I-III. Methods: Support through education and clinical supervision was provided for caregivers only at NH I and NH II. At NH I-III caregiver self-assessments and interviews were completed and analysed three different times. Results: NH I revealed improvement and increased innovation over time, while NH II showed a decline with no ability to implement new knowledge. NH III retained a more status quo. Conclusions: Organizational changes and cutbacks, occurring at different times, appeared to cause major stress and frustration among the three personnel groups. They felt guilty about not meeting their perceived obligations, seemed to have lost pride in their work but kept struggling. The changes seemed to over-shadow attempts to improve working conditions through education and clinical supervision initially. Implications for practice: It will be important to learn from reorganizations and the consequences they will have for the staff and quality of care. Important topics for future research are to study financial cutbacks and changes in organizational processes in care of older people to be able to develop a more person centered care for older people.
Public home care professionals’ experiences of being involved in food distribution to home-living elderly people in Sweden – a qualitative study with an action research approach
Zada Pajalic,Lena Persson,Albert Westergren,Kirsti Skovdahl
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/jnep.v2n2p41
Abstract: Background: Research focusing on Food Distribution (FD) from various professionals’ and organisational perspectivesare lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to explore various professionals’ experiences of involvement in FD inorder to get comprehensive understanding of the organisation, responsibilities and roles. Methods: This qualitative study is a part of a larger project with an action research approach focusing on FD in themunicipal home service and care for home-living elderly persons in a municipality in southern Sweden. The data wascollected through participatory observations (n=90 occasions and in total 480 hours), repeated focus group interviews (n =4) with different professionals (n =10) involved in the FD process and one individual interview. The material was analysedby qualitative manifest and latent content analysis. Results: The study indicates that Food Distribution is a fragmentary intervention where a comprehensive perspective andclear roles of responsibility are lacking. The FD organisation seemed to be strictly divided and limited by constraintsregarding time and money. The fragmented organisation led partly to staff only taking responsibility for their part of thechain and no one having the full picture of and responsibility for the FD process, but also to some professionals takingmore responsibility than they were supposed to. Conclusions: The aim of the study was met by using an action research approach. The study was however limited by thatno home help officers were represented. The FD appeared as an extremely complex chain of different but connectedactivities. It is not merely the distribution of a product, i.e. the meal box. The fragmentation of FD means that staff onlytakes responsibility for their part of the chain, and that no one has the full picture of or responsibility for the FD process.Consequently, there is a need for an outline of responsibilities. The findings have implications for nursing, gerontology,and in the care for the elderly.
How the professionals can identify needs for improvement and improve Food Distribution service for the home-living elderly people in Sweden - an action research project
Zada Pajalic,Kirsti Skovdahl,Albert Westergren,Lena Persson
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.5430/jnep.v3n8p29
Abstract: Background: Making changes to municipal social care and service has been found to be challenging to realise and highly multifaceted. The aim of this study was to describe how the professionals can identify needs for improvement and improve Food Distribution (FD) service for the home-living elderly people in Sweden. Methods: This study is part of a larger project with an action research approach focusing on to municipal FD to older people living in their own home in Sweden. The professionals involved in FD invited the first author to assist them in this process. The study participants were comprised of the following groups: “The Identification focus group” that identified need for improvement of FD (n= 5); “The Action focus group” that planned and choose suitable ‘action’ for improvement (n=5); “The First Evaluation group” (n=4) that evaluated the content of planned improvement and finally “The Second Evaluation group” (n=29) that evaluated the changes following improvement. The data was gathered and analysed by Story Dialogue Method. Results: The need to update and increase the FD recipient’s knowledge in nutrition by sending them informative letters was found to be an important area to focus on. The information letters (n=1700) were distributed to the all FD recipients in six municipalities in southern Sweden during April 2011. The results were evaluated during May 2011. The overall general estimation was that the content of the letters indicated that this was a suitable method for gaining information to make a nutrition competence update. Following this, “The Action focus group” decided: firstly, to continue preparing and distributing information letters to all FD recipients to be sent out twice a year, and secondly: to make the information letters accessible on the websites of the six municipalities and county councils involved. Conclusions: This study showed that systematic work inspired by an action research approach with motivated and involved participants can be beneficial and a starting point for the process of change in municipal service and care practice. The major conclusion of the study was that systematic reflection over everyday practice can be the vehicle for the future change of practice. The research process and the findings have implications for nursing, care of the elderly and gerontology.
Teachers’ and Teacher Students’ Conceptions of Learning and Creativity  [PDF]
Iida Vedenp??, Kirsti Lonka
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.520203
Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore what kinds of conceptions of creativity and learning Finnish teachers and teacher students expressed, and how these conceptions were related to the respondents’ epistemologies (conceptions of knowledge and learning). The participants (n = 89) answered an e-form, consisting of 3 open-ended questions (conceptions of learning, creativity and the connection between the two). In addition, there were 23 two-part Likert-type statements on epistemologies (Lonka et al., 2008) as well as 10 background questions. Mixed method approach was used to analyze the conceptions that the respondents’ expressed. Two qualitative categories of conceptions of learning came from previous research, Constructivity and active epistemology (Lonka, Joram, & Bryson, 1996). A new category also emerged: Collaborativity of learning. The answers about creativity were classified based on whether creativity was viewed as an inborn ability or something changeable, whether focus was on product or process, and whether creativity was seen as collaborative. The participants’ open-ended conceptions of learning reflected a view of learning as teacher-regulated assimilation, whereas their (structured) epistemologies higlighted reflection and deep-level learning. Creativity was viewed as something that can be improved, focusing on the collaborative process. A link between learning and creativity was identified. It shall be of interest to see, how such epistemic stands would be related to group work.
V lislepingute t lgete riigisisene iguslik staatus ja v imalik rahvusvaheline vastutus
Kirsti Pent
Acta Societatis Martensis , 2006,
Abstract: [The Legal Status of Translations of Treaties in the Estonian Legal System and Possible International Responsibility] The article considers the legal status of the hundreds of translations of international treaties that Estonia has ratified. On the one hand, the problem lies within the poor quality of the translations and on the other hand, it seems that the government has absolved itself of all possible responsibility with regard to the translations as the majority of translations are marked as unofficial. Thus, a person who reads the text cannot be sure whether the translation corresponds to the original treaty text i.e. applicable law. It is unreasonably difficult for a person to determine the content of the treaty if one cannot rely on the translation. If a person suffers harm because he or she had based one’s actions on the translation whereas the original treaty text stated something else, it is not possible for that person to claim damages from the government. The article argues that as the translations are unofficial they are intended to have no legal significance in the Estonian legal system. That raises a number of issues — among others the international responsibility of Estonia as by distancing itself from the translations, Estonia is not complying with its international obligations. This and other problems with regard to the unofficial translations are explored in more detail.
Changing Media Understandings of Gender Relations: Japan’s Equal Employment Opportunity Law in 1985 and 1997
Kirsti Rawstron
Altitude : An e-Journal of Emerging Humanities Work , 2011,
Abstract: This paper examines the portrayal of gender relations and issues in the Japanese media through a case study of discussions in mainstream newspapers surrounding the introduction in 1985 of the Equal Employment Opportunity Law (EEOL) in Japan. This law was introduced as part of Japan’s ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The debate surrounding the changing EEOL is examined through articles from three mainstream daily national newspapers, notably the Asahi Shinbun, the Nihon Keizai Shinbun and the Yomiuri Shinbun. The articles reflect and reinforce the changing cultural understanding of gender relations in Japan over this period. The newspapers supported the introduction of the Law to various degrees, stating that they believed Japan should aim to become a gender equal society. However, they expressed concerns over whether there was societal support for the law, and feared that women’s conditions were being ‘equalised down’ rather than men’s being ‘equalised up’.
Utdanning - og den pluralistiske utfordring
Kirsti Klette
Utbildning & Demokrati : Tidsskrift f?r Didaktik och Utbildningspolitik , 1999,
The Library Visit Study: user experiences at the virtual reference desk
Nilsen Kirsti
Information Research: an international electronic journal , 2004,
Abstract: This paper discusses the methodology and reports on initial findings of a study examining the perceptions of users of digital reference services. It is part of a long-term research project, The Library Visit Study, which has been conducted in three phases at the University of Western Ontario for more than a decade. Phases One and Two examined perceptions of users who approached physical reference desks in libraries with reference questions. Phase Three of the research considers reference encounters at virtual reference desks and compares users' experiences at the physical reference desk with experiences at the virtual reference desk. The findings suggest that, from the viewpoint of the enquirer, the virtual reference desk suffers from the same problems as the physical reference desk: inadequate reference interviewing, referral to alternative sources without a subsequent check on their suitability, and a lack of follow-up to determine satisfaction in general.
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