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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 150722 matches for " Kirsten H. Walen "
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Normal Human Cell Conversion to 3-D Cancer-like Growth: Genome Damage, Endopolyploidy, Senecence Escape, and Cell Polarity Change/Loss  [PDF]
Kirsten H. Walen
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.22023
Abstract: In cell cultures monolayered cell growth is controlled by contact inhibition which again is controlled by the cell polarity system by always being positioned in accord with the cytoskeleton axis. Presently, cycling endopolyploid cells (tetraploidy) were shown to undergo perpendicular divisions relative to the cytoskeleton axis which disrupted to some degree contact inhibition in the near-senescent phase of human primary cells. These experiments included genome damage-induced endopolyploidization (TAS-treated) to simulate as a model system the state of in vivo accelerated cell senescence (ACS) which is induced by therapy-associated genomic damage. From ACS delayed tumor re-growth (re-lapse) occurs from “robust” cell propagation, but mechanisms for such cell escape from senescence are unknown. For TAS-treated a karyoplast bud-off process with change to limited mitotic activity occurred in young senescent cultures. In old, deep senescent (5 - 8 weeks) cultures, unexpectedly escape cell-growth showed three dimensional (3-D) tumor-like spheres from growths of morphologically different cells as compared to the fibroblastic phenotype. These cells expressed cell polarity change, and very condensed nuclei were variously perpendicularly oriented to what-ever cell polarity was present. These results were discussed in regard to in vivo relapse and, to the importance of cell polarity change in tumorigenesis. Induced senescence as an anti-tumor mechanism in therapy treatment becomes a questionable procedure from the present experimental results.
Neoplastic-Like CELL Changes of Normal Fibroblast Cells Associated with Evolutionary Conserved Maternal and Paternal Genomic Autonomous Behavior (Gonomery)  [PDF]
Kirsten H. Walen
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.59094

The present comparative review discusses conservation of early evolutionary, relic genetics in the genome of man, which determine two different mechanistic reductive division systems expressed by normal, human diploid cells. The divisions were orderly and segregated genomes reductively to near-diploid daughter cells, which showed gain of a proliferative advantage (GPA) over cells of origin. This fact of GPA expression is a fundamental requirement for initiation of tumorigenesis. The division systems were responses to a carcinogen-free induction system, consisting of short (1 - 3 days) exposures of young cells to nutritional deprivation of amino acid glutamine (AAD). In recovery growth (2 - 4 days) endo-tetra/ochtoploid cells and normal diploid metaphase cells demonstrated chromosomal reductive divisions to respectively heterozygous and homozygous altered daughter cells. Both division systems showed co-segregating whole complements, which for reduction of the diploid metaphases could only arise from gonomeric-based autonomous behavior of maternal and paternal (mat/pat) genomes. The timely associated appearance with these latter divisions was fast growing small-cells (1/2 volume-size reduced from normal diploidy), which became homozygous from haploid, genomic doubling. Both reductive divisions thus produced genome altered progeny cells with GPA, which was associated with pre-cancer-like cell-phenotypic changes. Since both “undesirable” reductive divisions expressed orderly division sequences, their genetic controls were assumed to be “old genetics”, evolutionarily conserved in the genome of man. Support for this idea was a search for evidential material in the evolutionary record from primeval time, when haploid organisms were established. The theory was that endopolyploid and gonomery-based reductive divisions relieved the early eukaryotic organisms from accidental, non-proliferative diploidy and polyploidy, bringing the organism back to vegetative haploid proliferation. Asexual cycles were common for maintenance of propagating haploid and diploid early unicellular eukaryotes.

Haploidization of Human Diploid Metaphase Cells: Is This Genome Reductive Mechanism Opperational in Near-Haploid Leukemia?  [PDF]
Kirsten H. Walen
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.51013

The present study presents cytogenetics/cytology of haploidization in the origin of a new, fast growing diploid, small cell-type (F-dPCs). The sequence of events was haploid groupings of the chromosomes in normal, human metaphase cells, followed by genomic doubling to homozygousdiploidy. These events were responses to DNA replication stress fromamino acid glutamine deprivation. Importantly, these homozygous cells outgrew normal fibroblasts in 2 - 3 passages—they had gained proliferative advantage (GPA), presumably from loss (LOH) of tumor suppressor genes. They were morphologically changed cells with rounded nuclei that grew in a “streaming” growth pattern and with changed form and size of mitosis, similar to some hyperplasias. The grouping of the chromosomes in metaphase cells was asymmetric with a narrow range around the median (23) (no micro-nuclei), suggesting genetic control. The root-origin of haploidization was evidenced by maternal and paternal genomes occupying separate territories in metaphase cells, which assumedly permitted independent segregations of bichromatid chromosomes. In near-haploid ALL-L1 leukemia the loss of virtually, whole chromosomal complements was judged by SNP array analyses, as a primary event before genomic doubling to hyperdiploidy with LOH. From the present data such specific, non-random loss of chromosomes strongly suggested, a haploidization process capable of genomic doubling, as observed for the “birth” of the small, F-dPCs. This suggestion was supported by this type of leukemia being the L1-type, where L1 signifies small cells. The possibility now exists that a tumorigenic process can be initiated directly from diploid cells through haploid

Cancers in Children Ages 8 to 12 Are Injury-Related  [PDF]
Kirsten H. Walen
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.62020

Cancers in young children in early growing age was a short PBS (KQED) report (11/21/2014), but without informational source, which prompted a Google search. Sports-associated injuries with medical healing treatments concluded that there were no association between these body traumas and cancer development. But there are other activities from young children, such as “dare-devil” skateboard and bicycling meter-high jumping with potential high energy falls, to serious broken-bone injuries. Falls of children are among the most common causes of US emergency response. The question is why bodily injury is associated with cancer-development? An answer to this question was exemplified by osteosarcoma in young children, which suggested that injury to growing points of bone and surrounding soft tissue cells would elicit a repair process (wound healing process) producing polyploidy with diplochromosomes. The non-mitotic reductive division of such 4-chromatid chromosomes has been shownin vitroto produce pathological cancer-like phenotypes, including gain of a proliferative advantage.

Wound Healing Is a First Response in a Cancerous Pathway: Hyperplasia Developments to 4n Cell Cycling in Dysplasia Linked to Rb-Inactivation  [PDF]
Kirsten H. Walen
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.610099
Abstract: In a series of publications, the hypothesis of a special-type of endo-polyploidy, marked by 4-chromatid chromosomes (diplochromosomes), in the initiation of tumorigenesis has been presented from in vitro experiments. This review uses cellular happenings in benign pre-neoplasia to substantiate this idea, which appears to be linked to the wound-healing process of injured tissue. Rarer association between a wound healing process and a cancer occurrence has long been known. The wound healing multi-program-system involved a phase of tetraploidy that showed diplochromosomes. The hypothesis is that the inflammatory phase may not always be sufficient in getting rid of dead and damaged cells (by apoptosis and autophagy), such that cells with genomic damage (DNA breakage) may survive by genomic repair associated with change to diplochromosomal tetraploidy. In vitro data have shown division of these cells to be an orderly, mechanistic two-step, meiotic-like system, resulting in only two types of progeny cells: 4n/4C/G1 and 2n/2C/G1 pseudo-diploid cells with hyperplastic-like growth-morphology. In vivo damage to tissues can be from many sources for example, physical, toxic environment or from a disease as in Barrett’s esophagus (BE) with acid reflux into the esophagus. For this condition, it is acknowledged that damage of the esophagus lining is a pre-condition to hyperplastic lesions of pre-neoplasia. These initial lesions were from “diploid” propagating cells and, 4n cells with G2 genomic content (no mitosis) accumulated in these lesions before a change to dysplasia. Cell cycle kinetics put these 4n cells in G1, which with S-phase entry would lead to asymmetric tetraploid mitoses, characteristic for dysplastic lesions. This change in hyperplasia to dysplasia is the root-essential condition for a potential progression of pre-neoplasia to cancer. In BE the hyperplastic lesion showed increasing gains of cells with inactivated p53 and p16[ink4a] genes, which destroyed the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein-control over S-phase entry from G1. Rb-protein is a key controller of cycling advancement from G1 (also for normal cells), and is frequently inactivated in tumor cells. Thus in BE, 4n/4C/G1 cells with
Cancer Prevention? Fundamental Genomic Alterations Are Present in Preneoplasia, Including Function of High Frequency Selected Mutations (HFSMs)  [PDF]
Kirsten H. Walen
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2016.76044
Abstract: In a series of publications a special, tetraploid diplochromosomal division system to only two types of progeny cells (4n/4C/G1 and 2n/4C para-diploid) has been suggested to initiate preneoplasia that can lead to a cancerous pathway. Colorectal and other preneoplasia are known with the pathogenic, histological phases of hyperplasia to arrested adenoma/nevi that can give rise to dysplasia with high risk for cancer development. The present theme is to find solutions to tumorigenic unsolved, biological problems (queries), explainable from the tetraploid 4n-system, which would support its operation in the cancerous pathway. Presently admitted, the mutational sequencing of the cancer genome (cancer chemistry) cannot discover so-called “dark matter”, which herein is considered to be the queries. The solutions from the 4n-system were largely supported by mutated APC-induced same type of tetraploidy from the mitotic slippage process. But importantly, these behaviors and consequences could be linked to the beginning of hyperplastic lesions and their development to the arrest-phase of preneoplasia (polyps/nevi). Function of HFSMs is mostly unknown, but for Barrett’s esophagus, HFSMs (p53, p16ink4a) caused inactivation of the Rb gene, leading to dysplasia with 4n, aneuploid, abnormal cell cycles. In vitro models of the 4n-system from normal human cells recapitulated preneoplasia-like histopathological changes. It was speculated that the “cancer-crucial” step to dysplasia could be therapy-vulnerable to CRISPR-caspase editing, and perhaps antibody treatment. Additionally, the 4n-system with spontaneous cell-behaviors together with preneoplasia molecular data promises construction of a more truthful cancer-paradigm than from sequencing data alone.
Mitotic Slippage Process Concealed Cancer-Sought Chromosome Instability Mechanism (S-CIN)  [PDF]
Kirsten H. Walen
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2017.86052
Abstract: Official (NIH) cancer investigation is on identification of inherited cancer genes in you and me for early interventions, and for use of such knowledge in therapy. In this review the emphasis is on the unknown cancer initiation, and on the question of a mechanism for inherited CIN (chromosomal instability). Evidence for fitness increased cells from the mitotic slippage process (in vivo/in vitro) originated from genome damaged diploid cells in G2/M, skipping mitosis to G1, which illegitimately permitted S-phase re-replication of the chromatid cohesed-2n cells to 4n-tetraploidy. During which, down-load of genome-wide cohesin occurred, producing 4-chromatid diplochromosomes, evolutionary conserved in repair of DNA. This type of 4n cells divided 2-step meiotic-like, leading to diploid aneuploid cells with increased fitness, and expression of gross chromosomal anomalies in proliferation. The diploid cohesed chromatids during re-replication would hinder replication of sticky heterochromatic regions, resulting in their under-replication, and known from Drosophila. The human chromosomes are longitudinally differentiated into satellite DNA regions, folic acid sensitive sites and the primary constriction (centromere); they are breakage sensitive regions and being heterochromatic. This strongly suggests, multiple, chromosomal regional under-replication-cites, translated to origin of slippage, S-CIN, a genome inherited destabilization mechanism. Logically, S-CIN would affect genes differentially depending on chromosome location, for example, the high frequency in cancers of mutated p53 on the small 17p-arm, which with centromere breakage would be preferentially lost in mitosis. This likely S-CIN mechanism in cancer evolution can be studied in vivo for APC mutated crypt cells with demonstrated mitotic slippage process.
Genomic Instability in Cancer I: DNA-Repair Triggering Primitive Hereditary 4n-Skewed, Amitotic Division-System, the Culprit in EMT/MET/Metaplasia Cancer-Concepts  [PDF]
Kirsten H. Walen
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2018.912081
Abstract: The objective was to gain proof of genome damage-repair induced mitotic slippage process (MSP) to 4n-diplochromosome skewed division-system, earlier suggested to have “cancer-deciding” consequences. Our damage-model showed two succeeding phases: molecular mutations for initiation of fitness-gained cells, and large chromosomal changes to aneuploidy from inherited DNA-breakage-repair inaccuracies. The mutations were gained while DNA-repair and DNA-replication, co-existed in the route to tetraploidy, a phenomenon also expressed for some existing unicellular organisms. These organisms also showed genome reductive, amitotic, meioticlike division, and was the origin of human genome conserved, self-inflicted 90° reorientation of the 4n nucleus relative to the cytoskeleton axis. In the in vitro DNA-damage model, this remarkable 4n-event deciding “flat-upright” cell-growth characteristics showed several consequences, for example, cancer-important,
Genomic Instability in Cancer II: 4N-Skewed (90°) Reductive Division via Fragile Sites to Fitness Increase for Solid and Hematological Cancer Beginnings  [PDF]
Kirsten H. Walen
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2019.107045
Abstract: The objective herein was to connect the ontogeny process of diplochromosomal, amitotic, 4n-skewed division-system, to cytogenetic deficiency lesions in satellite, repetitive DNAs, especially in the chromosomal fragile sites, some 100 distributed over the genome. These latter studies had shown that chemical induced replication-stress led to un-replicated lesions in these fragile sites, which from inaccurate repair processes caused genomic instability. In the chain of events of the ontogeny process to the special tetraploidy, it was proposed that primary damaged human cells could undergo replication stress from repair-process present during cell replication, a suggestion verified by X-ray damaged cells producing the unstable fragile sites (see text). The cancer-importance for therapy is recognition of cell cycle change for the 4n derivative fitness-gained, diploid progeny cells. An open question is whether RB controlling G1 to S-period is mutated at this suggested tumorigenesis initiating phase, and if so, with what consequences for therapy. The fragile site studies further showed that repair of repetitive DNAs could produce two types of genomic changes: single gene mutations and CNVs, which were here shown to be chromosomally located on “borders” to repairing satellite lesions. This genomic placement was found to correspond to mutations identified in tumor sequencing (p53, Rb, MYC), favoring a bad luck location for their cancer “mutational nature”. The CNVs in cancers, are here seen as molecular expressions of long-known cytogenetic HSRs and DMs also with demonstrated origin from amplifications of single genes. Over-expression of oncogenes was hinted of being from duplications, but Drosophila genetics demonstrated the opposite, gene inactivation. The reduced eye-size from dominant, BAR-Ultra-Bar-eye phenotypes, was caused by duplications, inactivating the genetic system for eye-size. The finding of CNVs showing “evasion” of the immune system suggests, inactivation of immune-determining genetics. Since mutated genes on borders to satellite DNAs are a fact in hematological cancers, the 4n-skewed division-system is suggested to replace
Water and the Configuration of Social Worlds: An Anthropological Perspective  [PDF]
Kirsten Hastrup
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.54A009

From an anthropological perspective, water is not only the sine qua non of life in general, it is also seen to configure societies in particular ways, and to generate particular values. This will be substantiated in four moves. First, the hydrological cycle and other elementals of water will be discussed. Second, we shall zoom in on rivers, transforming natural resources and social communities as they bend and twist. Third, we shall discuss artificially established canals, emulating natural flows, but having their own long-term social and political implications. Fourth, we shall focus on wells, providing nodal points of social life and potential conflict. The article ends with some observations on water as a theory-machine.

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