Abstract:
A network as a substrate for dynamic processes may have its own dynamics. We propose a model for networks which evolve together with diffusing particles through a coupled dynamics, and investigate emerging structural property. The model consists of an undirected weighted network of fixed mean degree and randomly diffusing particles of fixed density. The weight $w$ of an edge increases by the amount of traffics through its connecting nodes or decreases by a constant factor. Edges are removed with the probability $P_{rew.}=1/(1+w)$ and replaced by new ones having $w=0$ at random locations. We find that the model exhibits a structural phase transition between the homogeneous phase characterized by an exponentially decaying degree distribution and the heterogeneous phase characterized by the presence of hubs. The hubs emerge as a consequence of a positive feedback between the particle and the edge dynamics.

Abstract:
We study a coupled dynamics of a network and a particle system. Particles of density $\rho$ diffuse freely along edges, each of which is rewired at a rate given by a decreasing function of particle flux. We find that the coupled dynamics leads to an instability toward the formation of hubs and that there is a dynamic phase transition at a threshold particle density $\rho_c$. In the low density phase, the network evolves into a star-shaped one with the maximum degree growing linearly in time. In the high density phase, the network exhibits a fat-tailed degree distribution and an interesting dynamic scaling behavior. We present an analytic theory explaining mechanism for the instability and a scaling theory for the dynamic scaling behavior.

Abstract:
We introduce a correlated static model and investigate a percolation transition. The model is a modification of the static model and is characterized by assortative degree-degree correlation. As one varies the edge density, the network undergoes a percolation transition. The percolation transition is characterized by a weak singular behavior of the mean cluster size and power-law scalings of the percolation order parameter and the cluster size distribution in the entire non-percolating phase. These results suggest that the assortative degree-degree correlation generates a global structural correlation which is relevant to the percolation critical phenomena of complex networks.

Abstract:
We investigate particle condensation in a driven pair exclusion process on one- and two- dimensional lattices under the periodic boundary condition. The model describes a biased hopping of particles subject to a pair exclusion constraint that each particle cannot stay at a same site with its pre-assigned partner. The pair exclusion causes a mesoscopic condensation characterized by the scaling of the condensate size $m_{\rm con}\sim N^\beta$ and the number of condensates $N_{\rm con}\sim N^\alpha$ with the total number of sites $N$. Those condensates are distributed randomly without hopping bias. We find that the hopping bias generates a spatial correlation among condensates so that a cluster of condensates appears. Especially, the cluster has an anisotropic shape in the two-dimensional system. The mesoscopic condensation and the clustering are studied by means of numerical simulations.

Abstract:
We begin by reviewing the noncommutative supersymmetric tubular configurations in the matrix theory. We identify the worldvolume gauge fields, the charges and the moment of R-R charges carried by the tube. We also study the fluctuations around many tubes and tube-D0 systems. Based on the supersymmetric tubes, we have constructed more general configurations that approach supersymmetric tubes asymptotically. These include a bend with angle and a junction that connects two tubes to one. The junction may be interpreted as a finite-energy domain wall that interpolates U(1) and U(2) worldvolume gauge theories. We also construct a tube along which the noncommutativity scale changes. Relying upon these basic units of operations, one may build physical configurations corresponding to any shape of Riemann surfaces of arbitrary topology. Variations of the noncommutativity scale are allowed over the Riemann surfaces. Particularly simple such configurations are Y-shaped junctions.

Abstract:
The gauge approach to gravity based on the local Lorentz group with a general independent affine connection A_{\mu cd} is developed. We consider SO(1,3) gauge theory with a Lagrangian quadratic in curvature as a simple model of quantum gravity. The torsion is proposed to represent a dynamic degree of freedom of quantum gravity at scales above the Planckian energy. The Einstein-Hilbert theory is induced as an effective theory due to quantum corrections of torsion via generating a stable gravito-magnetic condensate. We conjecture that torsion possesses an intrinsic quantum nature and can be confined. A minimal Abelian projection for the Lorentz gauge model has been constructed, and an effective theory of the cosmic knot at the Planckian scale is proposed.

Abstract:
We investigate the dynamic scaling properties of stochastic particle systems on a non-deterministic scale-free network. It has been known that the dynamic scaling behavior depends on the degree distribution exponent of the underlying scale-free network. Our study shows that it also depends on the global structure of the underlying network. In random walks on the tree structure scale-free network, we find that the relaxation time follows a power-law scaling $\tau\sim N$ with the network size $N$. And the random walker return probability decays algebraically with the decay exponent which varies from node to node. On the other hand, in random walks on the looped scale-free network, they do not show the power-law scaling. We also study a pair-annihilation process on the scale-free network with the tree and the looped structure, respectively. We find that the particle density decays algebraically in time both cases, but with the different exponent.

Abstract:
Recently a novel large-N reduction has been proposed as a maximally supersymmetric regularization of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory on RxS^3 in the planar limit. This proposal, if it works, will enable us to study the theory non-perturbatively on a computer, and hence to test the AdS/CFT correspondence analogously to the recent works on the D0-brane system. We provide a nontrivial check of this proposal by performing explicit calculations in the large-N reduced model, which is nothing but the so-called plane wave matrix model, around a particular stable vacuum corresponding to RxS^3. At finite temperature and at weak coupling, we reproduce precisely the deconfinement phase transition in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory on RxS^3. This phase transition is considered to continue to the strongly coupled regime, where it corresponds to the Hawking-Page transition on the AdS side. We also perform calculations around other stable vacua, and reproduce the phase transition in super Yang-Mills theory on the corresponding curved space-times such as RxS^3/Z_q and RxS^2.

Abstract:
We conduct a rigorous investigation into the thermodynamic instability of ideal Bose gas confined in a cubic box, without assuming thermodynamic limit nor continuous approximation. Based on the exact expression of canonical partition function, we perform numerical computations up to the number of particles one million. We report that if the number of particles is equal to or greater than a certain critical value, which turns out to be 7616, the ideal Bose gas subject to Dirichlet boundary condition reveals a thermodynamic instability. Accordingly we demonstrate - for the first time - that, a system consisting of finite number of particles can exhibit a discontinuous phase transition featuring a genuine mathematical singularity, provided we keep not volume but pressure constant. The specific number, 7616 can be regarded as a characteristic number of 'cube' that is the geometric shape of the box.

Abstract:
We explore the phase transitions of the ideal relativistic neutral Bose gas confined in a cubic box, without assuming the thermodynamic limit nor continuous approximation. While the corresponding non-relativistic canonical partition function is essentially a one-variable function depending on a particular combination of temperature and volume, the relativistic canonical partition function is genuinely a two-variable function of them. Based on an exact expression of the canonical partition function, we performed numerical computations for up to hundred thousand particles. We report that if the number of particles is equal to or greater than a critical value, which amounts to 7616, the ideal relativistic neutral Bose gas features a spinodal curve with a critical point. This enables us to depict the phase diagram of the ideal Bose gas. The consequent phase transition is first-order below the critical pressure or second-order at the critical pressure. The exponents corresponding to the singularities are 1/2 and 2/3 respectively. We also verify the recently observed `Widom line' in the supercritical region.