Abstract:
We generalize the static model by assigning a q-component weight on each vertex. We first choose a component $(\mu)$ among the q components at random and a pair of vertices is linked with a color $\mu$ according to their weights of the component $(\mu)$ as in the static model. A (1-f) fraction of the entire edges is connected following this way. The remaining fraction f is added with (q+1)-th color as in the static model but using the maximum weights among the q components each individual has. This model is motivated by social networks. It exhibits similar topological features to real social networks in that: (i) the degree distribution has a highly skewed form, (ii) the diameter is as small as and (iii) the assortativity coefficient r is as positive and large as those in real social networks with r reaching a maximum around $f \approx 0.2$.

Abstract:
( We present complete solutions of $K$-matrix for the quantum Mikhailov-Shabat model. It has been known that there are three diagonal solutions with no free parameters, one being trivial identity solution, the others non-trivial. The most general solutions which we found consist of three families corresponding to each diagonal solutions. One family of solutions depends on two arbitrary parameters. If one of the parameters vanishes, the other must also vanish so that the solutions reduces to trivial identity solution. The other two families for each non-trivial diagonal solutions have only one arbitrary parameter.)

Abstract:
We study boundary reflection matrix for the quantum field theory defined on a half line using Feynman's perturbation theory. The boundary reflection matrix can be extracted directly from the two-point correlation function. This enables us to determine the boundary reflection matrix for affine Toda field theory with the Neumann boundary condition modulo `a mysterious factor half'.

Abstract:
We present a complete set of conjectures for the exact boundary reflection matrix for $ade$ affine Toda field theory defined on a half line with the Neumann boundary condition.

Abstract:
We have calculated the photonic band structures of metallic inverse opals and of periodic linear chains of spherical pores in a metallic host, below a plasma frequency $\omega_{\text{p}}$. In both cases, we use a tight-binding approximation, assuming a Drude dielectric function for the metallic component, but without making the quasistatic approximation. The tight-binding modes are linear combinations of the single-cavity transverse magnetic (TM) modes. For the inverse-opal structures, the lowest modes are analogous to those constructed from the three degenerate atomic p-states in fcc crystals. For the linear chains, in the limit of small spheres compared to a wavelength, the results are the "inverse" of the dispersion relation for metal spheres in an insulating host, as calculated by Brongersma \textit{et al.} [Phys.\ Rev.\ B \textbf{62}, R16356 (2000)]. Because the electromagnetic fields of these modes decay exponentially in the metal, there are no radiative losses, in contrast to the case of arrays of metallic spheres in air. We suggest that this tight-binding approach to photonic band structures of such metallic inverse materials may be a useful approach for studying photonic crystals containing metallic components, even beyond the quasistatic approximation.

Abstract:
We calculate the single-particle Green's function for the tight-binding band structure, $\xi_{\vec p}=-2t\cos p_x-2t\cos p_y -\mu$, with a function of chemical potential $\mu$ for square-lattice system. The form of the single-particle self-energy, $\Sigma({\vec p}, E)$, is determined by the density-density correlation function, $\chi({\vec q}, \omega)$, which develops two peaks for $\mu \gtrsim -2.5t$ unlike parabolic band case. Near half filling $\chi({\vec q}, \omega)$ becomes independent of $\omega$, one dimensional behavior, at intermediate values of $\omega$ which leads to one dimensional behavior in $\Sigma({\vec p},E)$. However $\mu \leq -0.1t$ there is no influence on the Fermi Liquid dependences from SDW instability. The strong $\vec p$ and $E$ dependence of the off-shell self-energy, $\Sigma(p,E)$, found earlier for the parabolic band is recovered for $\mu \lesssim -t$ but deviations from this develop for $\mu \gtrsim -0.1t$. The resonance peak width of the spectral function, $A({\vec p}, E)$ has linear dependence in $\xi_{\vec p}$ due to the $E$ dependence of the imaginary part of $\Sigma({\vec p}, E)$. We point out that an accurate detailed form for $\Sigma({\vec p},E)$ would be very difficult to recover from ARPES data for the spectral density.

Abstract:
We review the leading momentum, frequency and temperature dependences of the single particle self-energy and the corresponding term in the entropy of a two dimensional Fermi liquid (FL) with a free particle spectrum. We calculate the corrections to these leading dependences for the paramagnon model and the electron gas and find that the leading dependences are limited to regions of energy and temperature which decrease with decreasing number density of fermions. This can make it difficult to identify the frequency and temperature dependent characteristics of a FL ground state in experimental quantities in low density systems even when complications of band structure and other degrees of freedom are absent. This is an important consideration when the normal state properties of the undoped cuprate superconductors are analyzed.

Abstract:
The spectral densities of the weighted Laplacian, random walk and weighted adjacency matrices associated with a random complex network are studied using the replica method. The link weights are parametrized by a weight exponent $\beta$. Explicit results are obtained for scale-free networks in the limit of large mean degree after the thermodynamic limit, for arbitrary degree exponent and $\beta$.

Abstract:
This dissertation investigates the geometric combinatorics of convex polytopes and connections to the behavior of the simplex method for linear programming. We focus our attention on transportation polytopes, which are sets of all tables of non-negative real numbers satisfying certain summation conditions. Transportation problems are, in many ways, the simplest kind of linear programs and thus have a rich combinatorial structure. First, we give new results on the diameters of certain classes of transportation polytopes and their relation to the Hirsch Conjecture, which asserts that the diameter of every $d$-dimensional convex polytope with $n$ facets is bounded above by $n-d$. In particular, we prove a new quadratic upper bound on the diameter of $3$-way axial transportation polytopes defined by $1$-marginals. We also show that the Hirsch Conjecture holds for $p \times 2$ classical transportation polytopes, but that there are infinitely-many Hirsch-sharp classical transportation polytopes. Second, we present new results on subpolytopes of transportation polytopes. We investigate, for example, a non-regular triangulation of a subpolytope of the fourth Birkhoff polytope $B_4$. This implies the existence of non-regular triangulations of all Birkhoff polytopes $B_n$ for $n \geq 4$. We also study certain classes of network flow polytopes and prove new linear upper bounds for their diameters.