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Las causas de la guerra Etiope-Somalí de 2006 | The Causes of Ethio-Somali War of 2006
Relaciones Internacionales , 2011,
Abstract: Somalia y Etiopía se embarcaron en tres conflictos mutuamente destructivos en cinco décadas. Puede decirse que en diciembre de 2006 una combinación de razones condujo a Etiopía y Somalia hacia la guerra, incluyendo consideraciones internas de ambos estados, tales como aspiraciones territoriales, resolución de problemas internos, la amenaza del fundamentalismo islámico, la intervención de fuerzas externas y los intereses y políticas de otros estados, tales como Eritrea. Debido a estas causas, Etiopía emprendió una campa a militar contra la Unión de Cortes Islámicas (UCI), la cual, en parte confiada por su victoria sobre los se ores de la guerra y por su relativa buena aceptación entre los somalíes, erró en sus cálculos al enfrentarse a las fuerzas etíopes, mucho mayores que las suyas y mejor preparadas para la batalla. Además, Estados Unidos desempe ó un papel en el estallido de la guerra, dada su política orientada a contrarrestar elementos de al-Qaeda, que aparentemente mantenían vínculos con la UCI. En términos generales, el objetivo del presente estudio es analizar los factores que condujeron a los dos estados vecinos, Etiopía y Somalia, a la guerra en 2006. Más específicamente, se proporcionará una valoración sólida sobre los actores involucrados, así como sus intereses y motivaciones. Somalia and Ethiopia were engaged in three mutually destructive conflicts within five decades. It can be said that, in December 2006, a combination of reasons led Ethiopia and Somalia to war including internal considerations in both states such as territorial aspirations, resolution of internal problems, the threat of Islamic fundamentalism, the intervention of external forces and the interests and policies of other states such as Eritrea. Because of these causes, Ethiopia undertook a military campaign against the Union of Islamic Courts which, in part misguided by their victory over the warlords and by their relative acceptance among the Somalis, miscalculated by engaging the very much bigger and battle-ready Ethiopian forces. Furthermore, the US played a part in the outbreak of the war because its policy of countering Al-Qaeda elements which were said to have links with the UIC. In broad terms, the study is aimed at analyzing the factors that led the two neighboring states, Ethiopia and Somalia, to war in 2006. More specifically, it will give a sound assessment of the actors involved, their interest and motivation.
Reimaging Ethiopia through Destination Branding  [PDF]
Mulugeta Girma
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2016.62019
Abstract: As the name of a country is negatively seen due to certain unpleasant incidents, re-imaging is obviously important and Ethiopia is affected by early derogatory histories which force the modern readers and viewers conception to be shaped by stories of wars and natural disasters including famine crisis that highly affect the destination brands especially the re-imaging effort. On this regard, Ethiopia was analyzed from the context of the tourists and some concerned organization so as to identify the possibility of re-imaging the country by using destination branding practices. To meet the goal, the study used mixed research approach and samples of 368 respondents were selected randomly to fill the questionnaires and out of it, 316 of them were collected and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics accordingly to test the hypothesis and reach the conclusions. The output reflects the destination marketing facts and insights in general, and recommendations are provided on how to re-image Ethiopia through destination branding which can be possible using branding techniques that could bring significant changes over stereotypes developed because of incidents that happen in the past.
Political Marketing: Exploring the Nexus between Theory and Practice in Ethiopia (Comparative Study between Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front and Coalition for Unity and Democratic Party)  [PDF]
Mulugeta Girma
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2016.42035
Abstract: The main purpose of the study was to explore the Nexus between Theory and Practice of political marketing in Ethiopia by examining the perceptions of members of EPRDF and CUDP political party. A mixed approach with 248 and 304 usable samples were collected from top members of two political parties randomly and relevant data were gathered, presented and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The findings revealed that there was no formal marketing practice used by both parties and no department responsible for establishment of political marketing mix elements rather they seldom undertook conventionally by simply stand for what they believe, or focused on persuading voters to agree with their preplan ideas and policies which were relating with the selling concept and product concept.
Low Flow Trends and Frequency Analysis in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Kidist Assefa, Mamaru A. Moges
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.102011
Abstract: Low flow analysis provides crucial information for the planning and design water resource development, risk assessment and environmental flow management. Understanding the low flow regimes and evaluating the magnitudes for incorporating in water resources management is vital for the countries like Ethiopia where demand for water is increasing. However, there were hardly enough studies in understanding the trends of low flow and frequency analysis. Therefore, this study focuses on evaluation of the trends in low flows and regional low flow analysis in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia. In order to carry out the study, 15 river sub-basins in the Blue Nile Basin were selected based on the long term data availability and presence of quality of data. The 3-day sustained low flow (3d-slf), the 7-day sustained low flow (7d-slf) and the 14-day sustained low flow (14d-slf) models were used to extract the data from the daily time series stream data obtained from MoWIE. Trends in low flow were analyzed separately by using Mann-Kendall (MK) trend test. Low flow frequency analysis was used to estimate the long term low flow quantiles. In addition, regional analysis for estimating the quantiles for ungaged catchments was also developed based on the regional growth curve and catchment characteristic of drainage basins. The results indicated that 3d-slf, 7d-slf and 14d-slf models of low flow series indicated no significant difference for each station at 95% CI. Out of the 15 selected stations, 12 of stations have indicated decreasing; two stations indicated increasing and remaining one station with no trend. Mainly decreasing trend was associated with the land cover and climate change which results in increasing runoff and evapotranspiration respectively. Weibull distribution—GEV and LGN was found best fit based on the L-Moment Ratio Diagram (L-MRD). Hence quantile estimations have indicated diminishing magnitudes of low flow quintiles for 2 - 500 years return periods. Regional low frequency analysis has provided a very good relationship between discharge and catchment characteristics with an R2 of 0.72. Where area (A) and rainfall (R) followed by slope were found sensitive to compute in developing the regional region equations between mean low flows and the physiographic data. This study indicated that there needs to be a new water management scenario and adaptation mechanism of climate change and land use land cover dynamics for utilizing water resource in the Blue Nile Basin.
Genotype by Environment Interaction Analysis for Tuber Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using a GGE Biplot Method in Amhara Region, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Mulugeta Gedif, Dessalegn Yigzaw
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.54027

Potato is one of the important crops grown in mid and high altitude areas of Ethiopia. Several potato genotypes have been introduced in different parts of this region. However, the stability and performance of these genotypes are not yet assessed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of genotype, environment and their interaction for tuber yield and identify stable potato genotypes. The study was conducted using eight potato genotypes in rainfed production season of years 2010 and 2011 at five potato growing locations in the region. Randomized complete block design with three replications was used for the experiment. Among the testing locations, the superior mean tuber yield (25.43 t/ha) was obtained at Adet while the inferior (13.89 t/ha) was at Injibara. Similarly, among the genotypes, CIP-396004.337 gave the highest mean tuber yield (25.66 t/ha), while CIP-395011.2 gave the lowest (17.78 t/ha). Combined ANOVA indicated that the main effects due to environments, genotypes and genotype by environment interaction were highly significant. The contribution of E, G and GEI to the total variation in tuber yield was about 47.11%, 8.83% and 44.07%, respectively. The GEI was further partitioned using GGE biplot model. The first two principal components obtained by singular value decomposition of the centered data of tuber yield explained 71.26% of the total variability caused by (G + GE). Out of these variations, PC1 and PC2 accounted 51.24% and 20.02% variability, respectively. GGE biplot view of this study identified Serinka as ideal

Incidence and Predictors of Tuberculosis among HIV/AIDS Infected Patients: A Five-Year Retrospective Follow-Up Study  [PDF]
Mulugeta Dalbo, Alemu Tamiso
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2016.62010
Abstract: Background: Despite increased deliverance of antiretroviral therapy (ART), morbidity and mortality from TB are still predominant among HIV/AIDS infected patients in Ethiopia. Thus, current study aimed to determine magnitude and predictors of tuberculosis among cohort of HIV infected patients at Arba Minch General Hospital, Ethiopia, 2015. Methods: Hospital based retrospective follow-up study was conducted among study population which was HIV/AIDS infected individuals registered from September 2007 to 2013. The data were collected using structured data abstraction form and four ART trained nurses were used to abstract the data. The data were checked for completeness, cleaned and entered into Epi Info 7.0 and analyzed using SPSS version (IBM-21). Results were summarized by using table of frequency, graph, and measure of central tendency. Statistical significance was inferred at P-value ≤ 0.05. Adjusted odd ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to determine predictors. Result: Four hundred ninety six patient’s charts were abstracted. Cumulative and incidence density of tuberculosis were 21.4% (95% CI: 21.3, 21.44) and 5.36 per 100 person year respectively. Cigarette smokers (AOR: 2.82, 95% CI (1.27 - 6.27)), household with family size of 3 - 4 (AOR: 2.26, 95% CI (1.14 - 4.50)), baseline WHO clinical stage III (AOR: 20.26, 95% CI (7.09 - 57.6)) and IV (AOR: 22.9, 95% CI (6.91 - 76.4)) and heamoglobin level of <10 (AOR: 2.56, 95% CI (1.22 - 5.33)) were important predictors (risk factors) of tuberculosis among HIV
Mulugeta Desta
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2001,
Abstract: An IBM compatible interface card system with infrared source-detector data sampling was designed and tested for automation of potentiometric titrations with personal computers without continuous measurement of the volume of the titrant. The device with other appropriate apparatus and setup was tested for determination of iron(II) samples with potassium dichromate. The automation method developed was tested to the titration of 1.500 x 10-4 M iron(II) sample and gives a reliable result of 1.496 x 10-4 M iron(II) with a relative error of 1.76%. (Received October 13, 2001; revised December 22, 2001) Bull.Chem.Soc.Ethiop. 2001, 15(2), 87-96
Some Quality Changes During Storage of Cassava Roots.
Mulugeta Taye
Journal of Food Technology in Africa , 2000,
Abstract: Two storage experiments were done at Awassa College of Agriculture during the year 1995 to investigate the quality changes on cassava root. In each experiment, two cultivars namely, Amarokello red (local) and Umbure, and three storage methods, namely, earthen floor (ground), trench storage and sacks were factorially combined and were examined for vascular streak (primary deterioration), tuber weight loss, starch and total protein content. The blue coloured vascular streak which occurred closer to the rind was found non-significantly different between cultivars, and storage methods. Also, the starch content was almost similar between the storage methods, but was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cultivar Amarokello red than Umbure. The protein content showed little variation between the different storage methods and the cultivars. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 5 Number 2 (April - June 2000), pp. 64-65
Anwar Mulugeta
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Beside the fact of poor adherence to antiretroviral drugs in resource limited country, serious adverse effects of the drugs and treatment failure complicate the whole management of antiretroviral therapy. Consequently, treatment modification and discontinuation of therapy has become a common phenomenon and hence limitation of treatment option has turn out the major concern of the future HAART. The aim of the study was to assess the factors responsible for modification of ARV regimen in patients taking ARV drugs.Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted between January 2007 and December 2007 in Dessie regional referral hospital Result: One hundred twenty two patients switch their first regimen in Dessie regional referral hospital within the study period. The most frequent prescribed first regimens before switch were AZT/3TC/EFV (36%), AZT/3TC/NVP (27%), D4T/3TC/EFV (19%) and D4T/3TC/NVP (18%). Toxicity (66%) followed by co-morbidity (14%) and planning pregnancy (11%) were the most common reasons for modification of antiretroviral therapy .The main toxicity was anemia (64 patients)and peripheral neuropathy (11 patients). Conclusion: The proportions of patients who modify HAART in our resource constrained setting present a challenge to the limited treatment options that currently present.
Automation of potentiometric titration with a personal computer using an ibm compatible interface system
Mulugeta Desta
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2001,
Abstract: An IBM compatible interface card system with infrared source-detector data sampling was designed and tested for automation of potentiometric titrations with personal computers without continuous measurement of the volume of the titrant. The device with other appropriate apparatus and setup was tested for determination of iron(II) samples with potassium dichromate. The automation method developed was tested to the titration of 1.500 x 10-4 M iron(II) sample and gives a reliable result of 1.496 x 10-4 M iron(II) with a relative error of 1.76%.
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