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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 249 matches for " Kheng Chheng "
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Emergence of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Pediatric Infection in Cambodia
Kheng Chheng, Sarah Tarquinio, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Lina Sin, Janjira Thaipadungpanit, Premjit Amornchai, Ngoun Chanpheaktra, Sarinna Tumapa, Hor Putchhat, Nicholas P. J. Day, Sharon J. Peacock
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006630
Abstract: Background The incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection is rising in the developed world but appears to be rare in developing countries. One explanation for this difference is that resource poor countries lack the diagnostic microbiology facilities necessary to detect the presence of CA-MRSA carriage and infection. Methodology and Principal Findings We developed diagnostic microbiology capabilities at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, western Cambodia in January 2006 and in the same month identified a child with severe community-acquired impetigo caused by CA-MRSA. A study was undertaken to identify and describe additional cases presenting between January 2006 and December 2007. Bacterial isolates underwent molecular characterization using multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and PCR for the presence of the genes encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL). Seventeen children were identified with CA-MRSA infection, of which 11 had skin and soft tissue infection and 6 had invasive disease. The majority of cases were unrelated in time or place. Molecular characterization identified two independent MRSA clones; fifteen isolates were sequence type (ST) 834, SCCmec type IV, PVL gene-negative, and two isolates were ST 121, SCCmec type V, PVL gene-positive. Conclusions This represents the first ever report of MRSA in Cambodia, spread of which would pose a significant threat to public health. The finding that cases were mostly unrelated in time or place suggests that these were sporadic infections in persons who were CA-MRSA carriers or contacts of carriers, rather than arising in the context of an outbreak.
A Prospective Study of the Causes of Febrile Illness Requiring Hospitalization in Children in Cambodia
Kheng Chheng, Michael J. Carter, Kate Emary, Ngoun Chanpheaktra, Catrin E. Moore, Nicole Stoesser, Hor Putchhat, Soeng Sona, Sin Reaksmey, Paul Kitsutani, Borann Sar, H. Rogier van Doorn, Nguyen Hanh Uyen, Le Van Tan, Daniel Paris, Stuart D. Blacksell, Premjit Amornchai, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Christopher M. Parry, Nicholas P. J. Day, Varun Kumar
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060634
Abstract: Background Febrile illnesses are pre-eminent contributors to morbidity and mortality among children in South-East Asia but the causes are poorly understood. We determined the causes of fever in children hospitalised in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. Methods and Findings A one-year prospective study of febrile children admitted to Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and outcome data were comprehensively analysed. Between October 12th 2009 and October 12th 2010 there were 1225 episodes of febrile illness in 1180 children. Median (IQR) age was 2.0 (0.8–6.4) years, with 850 (69%) episodes in children <5 years. Common microbiological diagnoses were dengue virus (16.2%), scrub typhus (7.8%), and Japanese encephalitis virus (5.8%). 76 (6.3%) episodes had culture-proven bloodstream infection, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (22 isolates, 1.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (13, 1.1%), Escherichia coli (8, 0.7%), Haemophilus influenzae (7, 0.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (6, 0.5%) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (6, 0.5%). There were 69 deaths (5.6%), including those due to clinically diagnosed pneumonia (19), dengue virus (5), and melioidosis (4). 10 of 69 (14.5%) deaths were associated with culture-proven bloodstream infection in logistic regression analyses (odds ratio for mortality 3.4, 95% CI 1.6–6.9). Antimicrobial resistance was prevalent, particularly in S. enterica Typhi, (where 90% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 86% were multi-drug resistant). Comorbid undernutrition was present in 44% of episodes and a major risk factor for acute mortality (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–4.2), as were HIV infection and cardiac disease. Conclusion We identified a microbiological cause of fever in almost 50% of episodes in this large study of community-acquired febrile illness in hospitalized children in Cambodia. The range of pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility, and co-morbidities associated with mortality described will be of use in the development of rational guidelines for infectious disease treatment and control in Cambodia and South-East Asia.
Reducing Carbon Emissions through Improved Forest Management in Cambodia  [PDF]
Nophea Sasaki, Issei Abe, Vathana Khun, Somanta Chan, Hiroshi Ninomiya, Kimsun Chheng
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2013.44A006
Abstract:

Carbon emissions from selectively logged forests in the tropics are strongly affected by logging practices. Although tropical forests are mainly managed under the concession system, only a handful of studies were done to assess the impact of logging practices on emission reductions and future timber supply. In this report, carbon stocks, timber supply, and carbon emission reductions under conventional logging (CVL), reduced-impact logging (RIL), and RIL with special silvicultural treatments (RIL+) were assessed in 3.4 million ha of concession forests for a 55-year project time span. Carbon emissions under a 25-year CVL practiced in Cambodia were estimated at 12.4 TgCO2 year-1 for 55 years. We then tested four cutting cycles of selective logging and our results suggest that a 45-year selective cutting cycle was appropriate for managing concession forests in Cambodia in terms of maintaining commercial timber supply and reducing carbon emissions. By considering RIL or RIL+ as a new logging practice for improving forest management in the tropics, carbon credits from selective logging in Cambodia were estimated at 6.2 - 7.9 TgCO2 or about $31.0 - 39.5 million annually if carbon is priced at $5. It is concluded that RIL or RIL+ should be adopted for “sustainable management of forests” element of the REDD+ scheme.

Harm reduction in Cambodia: a disconnect between policy and practice
Kannarath Chheng, Supheap Leang, Nick Thomson, Timothy Moore, Nick Crofts
Harm Reduction Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-9-30
Abstract: Cambodia is a country of about 14 million people, sharing land borders with Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam [1]. Despite recent economic growth, Cambodia remains one of the poorest countries in the region: the country’s GDP per capita stood at $830 in 2010, and the proportion of people living under the poverty line was about 30% of the population in 2007 [2,3]. Cambodia’s geographical location, poverty, high level of illiteracy and the loose legal system resulting from decades of internal conflicts have made Cambodia especially vulnerable to drug trafficking, drug use and its consequences [4].Estimations of the availability, patterns of use and trends of illicit drug use in Cambodia vary. In 2004, an expert consensus group estimated there to be 20,000 Amphetamine-Type-Stimulant (ATS) users and 2,500 heroin users, of who about 1,750 inject. In 2007 the National Authority for Combating Drugs (NACD) reported that there were 5,797 drug users who had come into contact with local authorities, during the same time period UNAIDS estimated that there were 46,300 drug users in the country of whom 23,150 (50%) were using ATS and some 2,900 (6.3%) heroin, including 2,025 (range: 1,250-7,500) who injected [5]. The UNODC has reportedly estimated that 4% of Cambodia’s population have ever used drugs which would mean a potential estimation of the total number of drug users of around 500,000 [4] although the non-injecting use of ATS would account for the majority of this figure as ATS continues to be the predominately used illicit drug in Cambodia [6].While it is difficult to estimate the proportion of drug users who inject, it is believed to be growing. One study estimated that the injection of drugs had increased from 0.6% of all drug use in 2000 to 10% in 2004 [7]. In 2007, of an estimated 46,300 illicit drug users in Phnom Penh, the vast majority were aged 18–25, most were male; half were regularly using ATS, with only 6.3% reporting regular heroin use while it was estimated that
Degradation of bisphenol A by ozonation: rate constants, influence of inorganic anions, and by-products
Kheng Soo Tay
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The second-order rate constants for the reaction between bisphenol A (BPA) and ozonewere evaluated over the pH range of 2-12. The rate constants showed minimum values (×104 M-1s-1)under acidic condition (pH < 4) and were of maximum values (×109 M-1s-1) under basic condition(pH >10). From pH 4 to 7, the second-order rate constants were found to increase by a magnitudeof almost 102 and this was due to the increase in anionic BPA species in the solution. The rateconstants increased almost twofold when pH increased from 9.6 to 10.2. The presence of commoninorganic anions at levels commonly found in the environment did not affect the rate of degradationof BPA.The degradation by-products from the ozonation of BPA were identified as 4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)phenol, hydroquinone, 4-hydroxyacetophenone, 2-(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propan-2-yl)succinaldehyde,2-(1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)vinyl)pent-2-enal, 3-formyl-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methylpent-2-enoic acid, monohydroxy-BPA and dihydroxy-BPA. In conclusion, ozonation was found to be aneffective method for the removal of BPA even in the presence of common inorganic anions atenvironmental concentrations. However, incomplete treatment of BPA might produce a variety ofdegradation by-products.
Warped branches of flux compactifications
Yen-Kheng Lim
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.85.064027
Abstract: We consider Freund-Rubin-type compactifications which are described by (p+q)-dimensional Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant and a q-form flux. Using perturbative expansions of Kinoshita's ansatz for warped dS_pxS^q and AdS_pxS^q spacetimes, we obtain analytical solutions describing the warped branches and their respective phase spaces. These equations are given by inhomogeneous Gegenbauer differential equations which can be solved by the Green's function method. The requirement that the Green's functions are regular provides constraints which determine the structure of the phase space of the warped branches. We apply the perturbation results to calculate the thermodynamic variables for the warped dS_pxS^q branch. In particular, the first law of thermodynamics can be reproduced using this method.
The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance
Nick Thomson, Supheap Leang, Kannarath Chheng, Amy Weissman, Graham Shaw, Nick Crofts
Harm Reduction Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-9-31
Abstract: On the 16th of August 2010, the Co-minister of the Ministry of Interior announced the Village/Commune Safety Policy as a priority policy for the Kingdom of Cambodia. The policy urged authorities at the commune level to ensure that there was no stealing, drug production or dealing, prostitution, child trafficking, domestic violence, gangsters, illegal gaming, use of illegal weapons or crime occurring at any commune in Cambodia [1].With regards illicit drugs the policy stated that authorities were to specifically:“Take action to cut off and eliminate production, dealing and use of illegal drugs at the village commune/Sangkat by following the guideline No 052 National Department of the Police dated 21st 2006 on the implementation of a warlike approach to fighting any drug crime and to especially focus the law on drug control[1].”The policy has had negative implications for HIV prevention among risk groups including harm reduction programs; a fact not lost on the Government of Cambodia who have acknowledged that the policy has made it much more difficult to access people who use drugs and has made “service provision for their benefit very difficult due to the misunderstanding of the law enforcement officers, especially at the commune level [2]”.Although the Village/Commune Safety policy has further highlighted the direct impact that law enforcement policy and practices can have on HIV prevention, many agencies have actively been trying to find a balance between law enforcement and HIV prevention efforts among most-at-risk populations (MARPs) in Cambodia over the last several years. Recognising that law enforcement practices were negatively affecting HIV prevention among sex workers, men who have sex with men and drug users, UNAIDS began working with the National AIDS Authority on a MARPs Community Partnership Initiative (MCPI). The MCPI was being designed as a standard operating protocol that could be implemented to decrease the impacts of law enforcement practices in H
Role of Radiotherapy in Modern Treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Kheng-Wei Yeoh,N. George Mikhaeel
Advances in Hematology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/258797
Abstract: Hodgkin's Lymphoma was incurable until the advent of effective therapeutic radiation around the first half of the 20th century. As survival rates improved, the long-term toxicities from radiotherapy began to emerge. This together with the availability of effective chemotherapy has encouraged a combined modality approach for early-staged disease and the omission of radiotherapy in advanced-staged disease. The differing toxicities of radiotherapy and chemotherapy has promoted ongoing research to identify the utility of each of these modalities in the modern management of Hodgkin's Lymphoma. This article will provide a critical review of the developments and indications for modern radiotherapy, in context with advances in chemotherapy, for the treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma. 1. Introduction During the first half of the 20th century, Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL) was incurable until the development of effective therapeutic radiation [1]. It involved irradiating beyond the site of disease to include the adjacent nodal groups, the so-called extended field radiotherapy (EFRT) with total or subtotal nodal irradiation [2]. With Radiotherapy (RT) alone, 10-year relapse-free survival of around 70% had been achieved in early-staged HL [3, 4]. However, advanced stage HL remained less curable with RT even with subtotal or total nodal RT until the introduction of combination chemotherapy. With the advent of effective chemotherapy regimes in the 1980s with MOPP [5] and ABVD [6], better cure rates were achieved in advanced disease establishing chemotherapy as the main line of treatment in advanced disease. Gradually, chemotherapy use moved to earlier-stage disease, initially as a pre-RT treatment in bulky mediastinal cases to reduce the extent of mediastinal RT and later to improve the outcome of RT alone. With emerging reports of long-term toxicities from EFRT, namely with pulmonary, cardiac toxicity, and secondary malignancies [7–13] together with studies showing that limited RT was sufficient after prior chemotherapy, combined modality treatment has been established in early disease. More recently, there has been several opinions calling on treating early stage HL with chemotherapy alone without RT, and this remains an interesting research question. The paper below will aim to highlight the developments of RT in HL treatment, with specific focus on its role in early, advanced, and relapsed disease. 2. Developments in RT 2.1. Background The concept of RT to cure HL by Gilbert [14] was implemented with kilovoltage [15] and later with megavoltage machines [1]. Doses of up to
M2M Communications in the Smart Grid: Applications, Standards, Enabling Technologies, and Research Challenges
Siok Kheng Tan,Mahesh Sooriyabandara,Zhong Fan
International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/289015
Abstract: We present some of the ongoing standardisation work in M2M communications followed by the application of machine-to-machine (M2M) communications to smart grid. We analyse and discuss the enabling technologies in M2M and present an overview of the communications challenges and research opportunities with a focus on wireless sensor networks and their applications in a smart grid environment. 1. Introduction Smart grid (SG) networks will be characterised by the tight integration of a flexible and secure communications network with novel energy management techniques requiring a very large number of sensor and actuator nodes. The communications network will not only facilitate advanced control and monitoring, but also support extension of participation of generation, transmission, marketing, and service provision to new interested parties. In order to realise the intelligent electricity network, machine-to-machine (M2M) communication is considered as a building block for SG as a means to deploy a wide-scale monitoring and control infrastructure, thus bringing big opportunities for the information and communication technology (ICT) industry. For example, smart metering in M2M can facilitate flexible demand management where a smart meter (SM) is a two-way communicating device that measures energy (electricity, gas, water, or heat) consumption and communicates that information via some communications means back to the local utility. With near realtime information available for example based on the flow of energy in the grid, different levels of tariff can be calculated and made available for the consumer, the consumer can make a smarter and more responsible choice. The information generated by SM therefore acts like “glue” allowing various components of SG to work together efficiently. There are also various large-scale wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN) deployed in SG (such as the electric power system generation, or home applications) in order to carry out the monitoring task, for example [1]. These WSANs with the collaborative and self-healing nature have an important role to play in realising some of the functionalities needed in SG. On the other hand, there is also cellular M2M where cellular technology plays an important role in M2M communications due to its good coverage, promising data rates for many applications, and so forth. However, in this paper, we mainly focus on WSAN where various short-range wireless technologies are used to support various M2M applications. There are currently various standardisation activities in M2M communications
Service Quality Analysis on the Consumer Perceptions Toward Online Ticketing: Evidence in Malaysia
Suhaiza Zailani,Lee Chee Kheng,Yudi Fernando
International Business Management , 2012,
Abstract: The importance of service quality in improving customer satisfaction and loyalty in traditional business settings has been established through the use of such instruments as Servqual. However, these established service quality dimensions, or similar measures, have not been applied to electronic commerce settings. This study investigates consumer perceptions toward online ticketing service quality. Specially, issues relating to the privacy, security, trust, convenience and experience within the consumer perception. The respondent in this study was an individual who had purchased air ticket through the Internet among Malaysian university staffs. A total of 100 questionnaires were distributed and 95 questionnaires were collected from the respondents. However, out of the 95 questionnaires that were received, 75 respondents had been purchased air ticket through the Internet. The results showed that privacy, security, convenience and experience were significantly influenced consumer perceptions on online ticketing, while trust factor was not significantly influenced consumer perceptions on online ticketing.
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