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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9279 matches for " Khawaja Bashrat Ahmed "
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Current Distribution and Status of Himalayan ibex in Upper Neelum Valley, District Neelum Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan
Usman Ali,Khawaja Bashrat Ahmed,Muhammad Siddique Awan,Shaid Asraf
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Nine months field survey was conducted from July 2004 to August 2005 to take the data on the distribution and population status of Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica) in the upper Neelum valley of Azad Kashmir. Survey was carried out using direct (senses) as well as indirect (sampling) methods. 122 animals of different categories were recorded in the study area. Total average population was composed of 31.79% male, 32.79% female, 25.41% young and 9.84% yearling animals. Various threats to the population of ibex in the area were also studied.
The Description of the Naiads of Orthetrum, Trithemis and Sympetrum (Odonata:Libellulidae) from Sindh Province
Riaz Hussain,Khawaja Basharat Ahmed
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: The naiads or nymphs of three genera namely Orthetrum, Trithemis and Sympetrum collected from the various locations of the Sindh Province of Pakistan are described in detail with illustrations.
Determination of Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Helicobacter pylori Isolates from South India Population  [PDF]
Khawaja Shakeel Ahmed, Anghesom Ambesajir Ghebremedhin, Aleem Ahmed Khan, Santosh K. Tiwari, J. D. Ahi, Irshad Ahmed
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2012.23031
Abstract: Introduction: The importance of H. pylori as an etiological agent in gastroduodenal disease had suggested antibiotic treatment as a main target for the elimination of infection. The successful eradication of H. pylori infection was shown to resolve the gastritis, dramatically accelerate ulcer healing, reduce ulcer recurrence and the prophylactic effect on the recurrence of ulcer bleeding. Materials and Methods: In the present study a total six antimicrobial agents such as Ciprofloxacin, Metronidazole, Norfloxacin, Tetracyclin, Amoxycillin and Clarithromycin were used against 100 clinical isolates from patients with peptic ulcer, and non-ulcer dyspepsia. H. pylori was isolated from the gastric biopsies obtained from the clinical subjects. Results: Results of our study showed 100% resistance to Metronidazole (MIC > 256 μg/ml). 97% of the isolates were observed sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (MIC 0.38 μg), whereas Tetracyclin showed 96% sensitivity (MIC 0.25 μg - 0.125 μg). Resistance to amoxycillin, Norfloxacin, and Clarithromycin were 80%, 38% and 76% respectively (MIC > 256 μg/ml). Conclusion: It is observed that 96% - 97% of the clinical isolates were sensitive to Tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, where all isolates were found to be resistant to Metronidazole. Resistance to Amoxycillin and Clarithromycin were 80% and 76% respectively. Studies attributed the high level of resistance to the frequent use of the drugs to treat various other infections and ineffective drug control policy.
Studying the Importance of VacA Gene of Helicobacter pylori in Identifying the Pathogenicity of Strains by Comparing It with the Disease Status of the Subjects  [PDF]
Khawaja Shakeel Ahmed, Basheer Madompoyil, Anghesom Ambesajir Ghebremedhin, John Issac, Janak Dulari Ahi, Aleem Ahmed Khan, Santosh Kumar Tiwari
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.41A010
Abstract:

Introduction: H. pylori is a primary pathogen isolated by Warren and Marshall in 1983. They called it as Campylobacter Pylori and in 1989 Goodwin et al. renamed it as Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter pylorus is one of the responsible factors for causing gastritis, Peptic ulcer disease and is strongly associated with gastric carcinoma and gastric Malt lymphoma. Materials and Methods: In this study 300 biopsies were collected at Deccan College of Medical Sciences and Allied Hospitals, Hyderabad, India. Of these, 101 patients had peptic ulcer, 95 patients had gastritis and 4 had gastric carcinoma. A total of four gastric biopsy specimens were collected. One was used for culturing H. pylori, one for histological lesions and the remaining two one each from the antrum & corpus was collected in phosphate buffered saline for the DNA analysis. Results: Helicobacter pylori were isolated from many of the biopsies and the identification of Helicobacter pylori was confirmed in 200 biopsies with colony characteristics, Biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA amplification. The presence of VacA marker was detected by using appropriate primers. From the data obtained in our study, in a total of 169/200 isolates s1 region was found in 84.1% and s2 was found in 36/200 i.e. 18% of the isolates. In the middle region, m1awas found in 60/200 which was 30%, m1b was found in 60/200 i.e. 60% and m2 was found in 114/200 i.e. 57.1% of the isolates. Conclusion: Thus, VacA detection might be helpful for determination of which patients are at highest risk for severe clinical outcomes such as duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer or gastric carcinoma and eventually, to define strategies for the treatment or prevention of H. pylori infection.

A study on the transmission of helicobacter pylori from food prepared and consumed under hygienic and unhygienic conditions: A first study using biopsy samples  [PDF]
Khawaja Shakeel Ahmed, Basheer Madompoyil, Janak Dulari Ahi, Aleem Ahmed Khan, Santosh Kumar Tiwari, Mohammed Aejaz Habeeb
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.64040
Abstract:

Objective: A comparative analysis on transmission of Helicobacter pylori in people who consumed food prepared in both hygienic and unhygienic conditions. Method: The study was carried out in 1000 people across India. The Ratio of Male: female was 700: 300 with age group ranging from 20 - 39. Three gastric biopsies were collected for identification of Helicobacter pylori. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) amplification was done by using 16srRNA primers. Result: The analysis showed the prevalence of H. pylori as 70.8% in individuals frequently consuming food prepared under less hygienic condition (street vendor’s food) whereas 60% (less prevalence) in individuals consuming food prepared under hygienic conditions. Conclusion: The results showed that most of the food that we consume daily is not involved much in the transmission of Helicobacter pylori. The study also showed that the street vendor’s food is not directly involved in the transmission of this bacterium. The unhygienic preparation of food and poor personal hygiene play a vital role in the transmission of these bacteria.

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Assessment of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among School Children in Asmara, Eritrea  [PDF]
Khawaja Shakeel Ahmed, Nuredin Mohamedkassm Siraj, Henok Fitsumberhan, Sara Isaac, Semhar Yohannes, Dawit Eman, Yacob Berhane, Matiwos Araya
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.91005
Abstract: Purpose: Poor hygiene practice, inadequate sanitary conditions and lack of awareness of correct mode of transmission are some factors that attribute to high intestinal parasitic infection among children. Therefore, having proper knowledge, good attitude and practice (KAP) against the aforementioned factors can significantly mitigate the spreading of intestinal infection. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study which comprised of 127 students who were selected by stratified random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was used to record KAP of students against intestinal parasitic infection. Total 126 students gave stool samples which were analysed by formol-ether concentration technique. In addition, sewage samples were also collected and analysed for any parasitic load. Statistical data were generated by Chi-square test. Results: A total of 126 stool samples were examined in the study of which 46 (36.50%) were found infected with one or more intestinal parasites. Among the parasites identified, the most common was Hymenolepsis nana with a prevalence rate of 35 (76.0%). Here, most of the students 96 (76.1%) were having poor knowledge about the correct mode of transmission of intestinal parasites. Majority of the students 91 (72.2%) practicing defecation in open air when they are at home, and all 126 (100%) are doing that at school, and significant number of students were not washing hands after defecation. Conclusion: Lack of knowledge regarding mode of transmission and practice of defecation in open air and not washing hands after defecation are issues of great concern, because many parasitic infection have faecal-oral mode of transmission. So, health authorities have to take these issues seriously and action would be vital to resolve it.
Surveillance of Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds in Areas Adjacent to Epicenter of an out Break in Federal Capital Territory of Pakistan
J.Z. Khawaja,K. Naeem,Z. Ahmed,S. Ahmad
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2005,
Abstract: Influenza is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of avian origin that has caused epidemics and pandemics in humans for centuries. Among these avian influenza viruses (AIV), only serotypes H5 and H7 are considered highly pathogenic in poultry. However, serotype H9N2 has also been found to produce severe respiratory and reproductive tract infections in chickens. The previous studies have suggested that movement of poultry and wild birds play a major role in the spread of influenza viruses to distant areas in a country. The present study was carried out to monitor the prevalence of AIV in wild birds in certain areas of the Pakistan, which were free from infection during the outbreak of November 2003. In this regard, 7 wild bird species were selected and their blood, cloacal swabs and tissue samples were collected both for serological evaluation and virus isolation. The results indicated that antibodies to AIV serotype H9N2 were present in 10% of wild birds, whereas the virus was itself isolated only from 6.72% of the samples. These data provide the evidence regarding the wild birds as one of the major carrier of the AIV infection.
Population Dynamics of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii) in Jhelum Valley, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Muhammad Siddique Awan,Aleem Ahmed Khan,Khawaja Basharat Ahmed,Masood Ahmed Qureshi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: A sum of 28 surveys were conducted from June 2002 to June 2003 in three main zones (Pir Chinasi, Lowasi-Ghari Dopatta and Chinari-Qazinag) of Jhelum valley Muzaffarabad to collect data on distribution and population status of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii). The three main zones were divided into 8 main localities, each main locality was further divided into sub-localities or calling sites of Cheer Pheasant. A cumulative total of 194 adults in 2002 and 126 in 2003 were estimated in two breeding seasons. The density indices show one calling site in Low Gali (0.05 km2), three in Kavashan (0.75 km2), four in Pir Chinasi (1.33 km2), four in Garang (1.6 km2), four in Cheetah, seven in Sangar Bari (1.75 km2), three in Shinger (1.5 km2) and two in Khatir Nar (0.80 km2). During present study the no. of calling sites and density indices at various areas showed that maximum value of density index i.e. 1.75 km-2 recorded at Sangar Bari and minimum value of 0.50 km-2 at Low Gali. By documenting the direct and indirect evidences i.e. Call Counts, fresh ground clutching, feathers, foot prints, shepherds (n=10), locals (n=8), hunters (n=5) and wildlife staff (n=5) the total adult population in these two localities is 36 and 8 birds, respectively. T-test shows that there is no significant difference (0.71790) between the means of adults Cheer population estimated in 2002 and 2003 breeding season. The major threats to the cheer pheasant population were determined to be hunting and habitat degradation due to human related activities.
Habitat Utilization of Cheer Pheasant (Catereus wallichii) in Jhelum Valley, Muzaffaraabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Muhammad Siddique Awan,Aleem Ahmed Khan,Masood Ahmed Qureshi,Khawaja Basharat Ahmed
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Sum of 28 surveys were conducted from June 2002 to June 2003 in three main zones (Pir Chinasi, Lowasi-Ghari Dopatta and Chinari-Qazinag) of Jhelum valley Muzaffarabad to collect data on Phytosociological habitat analysis of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii). Three zones were divided into 8 main localities, each of which was further divided into sub-localities or calling sites of Cheer Pheasant. The Phytosociological analysis of five localities was carried out at calling sites of Cheer Pheasant. The importance value (dominant and co-dominant vegetation by Quadrate Method) of each plant species was calculated in order to find out the relationship of Cheer Pheasant population with various variables of habitat. Phytosociological habitat comparison of dominant and co-dominant vegetation of five main localities showed that the following plant species are common and characteristic of each habitat. These species are Pinus walliachiana, Plactranthus rugosus, Indigofera heterantha, Berberis lycium, Fragaria indica, Oenothera rosea, cynoglossum lanceolatum, Saccharum rufipilum and onychium japonicum. Correlation analysis between Cheer Pheasant density indices at various sites and habitat variables showed non-significant results with ground cover (r = 0.24, p>0.5), with shrubs (r = 0.44, p>0.5) and with tree cover (r = 0.36, p>0.5). However the higher value of r with shrubs showed some relationship of Cheer population. Similarly, correlation analysis between Cheer Pheasant population and with canopy cover showed non-significant results i.e. with ground canopy cover (r =-0.08, p>0.5), with shrub canopy cover (r = 0.33, p>0.5) and with tree canopy cover (r =-0.05, p>0.5). Again the higher value of r with shrub canopy cover indicates some affinity of Cheer Pheasant population.
First Breeding and Nidification Record of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii) in Jhelum Valley, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Muhammad Siddique Awan,Aleem Ahmed Khan,Khawaja Basharat Ahmed,Masood Ahmed Qureshi
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Surveys were conducted from June 2002 to June 2003 in three main zones (Pir Chinasi, Lowasi-Ghari Dopatta and Chinari-Qazinag) of Jhelum valley Muzaffarabad to collect data on the breeding and nidification of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii). Three main zones were divided into 8 main localities, each main locality was further divided into sub-localities or calling sites of Cheer Pheasant. Two nests were found during survey i.e. one at sub-locality Nar Ka Daman at an attitude of 2500 m and other at Batal Ka Daman of Sangar Bari at 2600 m on July 11, 2002 and June 8, 2003, respectively. A female, hatching eggs (n=8) was flushed from first nest at sub-locality, Nar Ka Daman. The second nest was an old and inactive. The composition and measurements of both the nests were almost same. Both nests were constructed on ground under the bushes of Plactranthus rugosus and made up of 65-70% dry grasses i.e. saccharum rufipilum, Eriophorum sp. Poa angustifolia, with 10-12% twigs of Plactranthus rugosus, Indigofera heterantha and 20-26% needles of Pinus wallichiana The average size of eggs was 53x40 mm. In present study 2 pairs of adults with 13 juveniles were observed at cheetah location at elevation of 1900 m in July 10, 2002. Similarly in Kavashan (2500 m) a pair with 10 newly hatched chicks were observed in July 9, 2002.
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