Abstract:
Background: Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy is a relatively noninvasive procedure that is used in the treatment of posterior capsular opacification (PCO). PCO is caused by proliferation of lens epithelial cells which causes fibrotic changes and wrinkling of the posterior capsule and results in decreased vision, glare, and other symptoms similar to that of the original cataract.Objective: To find out the visual outcome after performing Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy for PCO.Materials and method: A prospective clinical trial was carried out in National Institute of Ophthalmology (NIO), Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2010 to June 2011 on purposively selected 70 adult subjects of both sexes who developed PCO within 2 months to more than 2 years after extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intra ocular lens implant. After thorough pre laser assessment Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy was carried out with Zeis VISULAS YAG II through Zeiss slit lamp under topical anesthesia. Data were recorded and expressed as proportion.Results: Out of the 70 subjects 40 were male and 30 were female. The average time interval of cataract surgery and Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy was 23 months. Capsular fibrosis (57.04%) was the predominant type of PCO. The pre laser visual acuity (VA) of more than 61.06% of eyes was 6/36 or below while 41.12% had VA hand movements to finger count. After Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy VA of 6/18 or better was achieved in 63.9% of eyes while 9.94% recovered to 6/9 and 11.36% achieved 6/6. None of these eyes showed further deterioration in VA.Conclusion: Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy for PCO is safe, effective and a rewarding procedure for improvement of vision.

Abstract:
In 2000, Kostyrko, Salat,and Wilczynski introduced and studied the concept of I-convergence of sequences in metric spaces whereI is an ideal. The concept of I-convergence has a wide application in the field of Number Theory, trigonometric series, summability theory, probability theory, optimization and approximation theory. In this article we introduce the double sequence spaces and ,for a modulus function f and study some of the properties of these spaces.

Abstract:
In Bangladesh, many poultry microenterprises (MEs) have flourished through the lending of microcredit to the poor. These MEs are linked to the value chain and play a significant role in poverty reduction. Not all of these MEs are located in favorable places. Almost all are developed utilizing homestead lands, which results in poor input supply and marketing facilities, and causes higher costs and less profit. This paper tries to uncover the constraints in value chain development, mainly those related to its physical and infrastructural environment; verify the potential of MEs through an analysis of their geographic concentration in sites with different suitability levels; and make recommendations as to how to overcome the constraints, with a view to ensuring higher profit levels for vulnerable poor. The suitability of sites was delineated through Geographic Information System (GIS). The analysis—a combination of field survey data with a site suitability map of farms/MEs concentration—is important, because it helps to validate the GIS analysis-based results of sites’ suitability, helps supporters to design interventions in areas where the farms exist, and thus, helps farmers in vulnerable sites to lift themselves out of poverty.

Abstract:
Let be a double sequence and let M be a bounded Orlicz function. We prove that x is I-pre-Cauchy if and only if This implies a theorem due to Connor,Fridy and Klin [1],and VakeelA.Khan and Q.M.Danish Lohani[2]

Abstract:
The sequence space was introduced and studied by Mursaleen (1983). In this article we introduce the sequence space 2 and study some of its properties and inclusion relations. 1. Introduction and Preliminaries Let , , and be the sets of all natural, real, and complex numbers, respectively. We write showing the space of all real or complex sequences. Definition 1. A double sequence of complex numbers is defined as a function . We denote a double sequence as where the two subscripts run through the sequence of natural numbers independent of each other [1]. A number is called a double limit of a double sequence if for every there exists some such that (see？？[2]). Let and denote the Banach spaces of bounded and convergent sequences, respectively, with norm . Let denote the space of sequences of bounded variation; that is, where is a Banach space normed by (see？？[3]). Definition 2. Let be a mapping of the set of the positive integers into itself having no finite orbits. A continuous linear functional on is said to be an invariant mean or -mean if and only if(i) when the sequence has for all ;(ii) , where ;(iii) for all . In case is the translation mapping , a -mean is often called a Banach limit (see [4]), and , the set of bounded sequences all of whose invariant means are equal, is the set of almost convergent sequences (see [5]). If , then . Then it can be shown that where , . Consider where denote the th iterate of at . The special case of (5) in which was given by Lorentz [5, Theorem 1], and that the general result can be proved in a similar way. It is familiar that a Banach limit extends the limit functional on . Theorem 3. A -mean extends the limit functional on in the sense that for all if and only if has no finite orbits; that is to say, if and only if, for all , , (see [3]) Put assuming that . A straight forward calculation shows (see [6]) that For any sequence , , and scalar , we have Definition 4. A sequence is of -bounded variation if and only if (i) converges uniformly in ;(ii) , which must exist, should take the same value for all . We denote by , the space of all sequences of -bounded variation (see [7]): Theorem 5. is a Banach space normed by (see [8]). Subsequently, invariant means have been studied by Ahmad and Mursaleen [9], Mursaleen et al. [3, 6, 8, 10–14], Raimi [15], Schaefer [16], Savas and Rhoades [17], Vakeel et al. [18–20], and many others [21–23]. For the first time, I-convergence was studied by Kostyrko et al. [24]. Later on, it was studied by ？alát et al. [25, 26], Tripathy and Hazarika [27], Ebadullah et al. [18–20, 28], and

The n-ary subdivision
schemes contrast favorably with their binary analogues because they are capable
to produce limit functions with the same (or higher) smoothness but smaller
support. We present an algorithm to generate the 4-point n-ary non-stationary scheme for trigonometric, hyperbolic and
polynomial case with the parameter for describing curves. The performance,
analysis and comparison of the 4-point ternary scheme are also presented.

Abstract:
Experiments were carried out to induce embryogenic callus and plant regeneration from five different deepwater rice cultivars. Using mature embryos as explant, all the cultivars demonstrated high callus induction and plant regeneration frequencies. When coleoptile and root segments used as explants, they had low frequencies of embryogenesis. Depending on different genotypes, the best plant regeneration was obtained on LS (Linsmaier and Skoog, 1965) based medium supplemented with 2 mgl-1 BAP + 1.5 mg l-1 2,4-D. Large variabilities in callus growth and plant regeneration potential were revealed among the cultivars tested. Cultivar HA-8 formed a high frequency (78%) of callus than that of other cultivars. In contrast cv. HA-1 produced the highest percentage (72%) of plant regeneration. The callus growth potential was not correlated with the plant regeneration potential. Coleoptiles and root segments produced calli, which did not develop any shoot bud in regeneration media. Moreover, the calli turned blackish, watery and translucent after 25-28 days of culture. It is clear that mature seed scutellum (MSS) is the best explant for callus induction and plant regeneration

Abstract:
Interactive effects of genotypes with callus induction and plant regeneration medium combinations on callus induction and plantlet regeneration response were studied for five deepwater Indica rice cultivars namely; Habiganj Aman-1, Habiganj Aman-2, Habiganj Aman-8, Murabajal and Gheoch. Mature seed scutellums were cultured on MS and LS basal media supplemented with different combinations of 2,4-D, casein hydrolysate (CH) and proline. In cv. HA-8, basal medium combination of MS+2 mg L-1 2,4-D supplemented with 0.6% (w/v) CH was found to be the best for callogenesis where callusing frequency was 87%. The growth rate of callus was frequently increased by the addition of different concentrations of CH with callus induction media. On the other hand, when proline was supplemented in to callus induction media it had no residual effect on callus growth. Embryogenic calli were transferred on MS and LS based regeneration media supplemented with 2 mg L-1 BAP and also different concentrations of casein hydrolysate and proline. The highest regeneration frequency (80%) was observed in cv. HA-1 on LS basal media supplemented with only 2 mg L-1 BAP. However, present study demonstrated that plant regeneration media supplemented with proline is not inhibitory for plant regeneration but have a noticeable comparatively stimulating effect on regeneration from callus. Here combination of casein hydrolysate tremendously reduced plant regeneration. An over all analysis of variations of frequencies for callusing and plant regeneration revealed a contrasting interaction among the culture media and genotypes.