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Olive mill waste water (OMWW) is a by-product issued after triturating olives. In Sfax, its management is different from urban to farming area. In this paper we treat it through a statistical analysis study during the season 2005-2006. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Classification (HC) methods are carried out on this work. Applied to variables issued from an exhaustive questionnaire including 274 mills, four Principal Components (PCs) are found to be significant, explaining 67% of the total variance. The coordinates of the 13 active variables retained by PCA were used to create a typology relative to the OMWW management and offered 7 groups of individuals which have the same characteristics, explaining 70% of the total inter-variance. This study showed that OMWW management in farming area could causes environmental problems because oleifactors haven’t controlled tanks and could evacuated OMWW on soil (causing oil deposit, waterproofing and possible asphyxia) or on public sewage network (causing corrosion, flow reduction). So, mills transfer from urban to farming areas in the form of agro-industrial complex is needed in the Sfax region.
This paper reviews culture as perceived in a number of language teaching perspectives. The term “culture” and its relation with language has been a center of interest in different fields of studies. Because the term “culture” is borrowed between disciplines, it is understood differently and altered in the process by the goals and traditions of the borrowers. As such culture remains an elusive concept for the language teacher. Here, I attempt to understand how culture has been understood in different English language teaching perspectives in the last fifty years. This reading helps understand how change in the teaching approach affects how culture is dealt with in class and in teaching materials.
Component based technology is widely
used for both academicians and business. There are numbers of benefits for
using this type of technology. First, it helps to increase the efficiency and
maintainability of software. Second, it improves quality and helps to enhance
productivity. Third, the reuse approach that supports component based
technology decreases the time to market. Component based e-commerce can be used
to solve e-commerce difficulties at application level as well as at system
level. This paper introduces how component based activities have effect mainly
on building the framework of the e-commerce. It also discusses how the
architectural design of the application can be synthesized.