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OALib Journal期刊

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Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts using aspirin induced ulcer model in albino rats
Khaja Zeeyauddin,Mangamoori Lakshmi Narsu,Muna Abid,Mohammed Ibrahim
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae) was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg) in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg) of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts in albino rats.
Comparison of Functional Protein Transduction Domains Using the NEMO Binding Domain Peptide
Khaleel Khaja,Paul Robbins
Pharmaceuticals , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ph3010110
Abstract: Protein transduction domains (PTDs), both naturally occurring and synthetic, have been extensively utilized for intracellular delivery of biologically active molecules both in vitro and in vivo. However, most comparisons of transduction efficiency have been performed using fluorescent markers. To compare efficiency of functional protein transduction, a peptide derived from IkB kinase ? (IKK?) that prevents formation of an active IKK complex was used as a biologically active cargo. This peptide, termed NEMO Binding Domain (NBD), is able to block activation of the transcriptional factor NF-κB by IKK, but not basal NF-κB activity. Our results demonstrate that Antp and Tat PTDs were most effective for delivery of NBD for inhibition of NF-kB activation compared to other PTD-NBD in both Hela and 293 cells, however, at higher concentrations (100 μM), the Antp-NBD as well as the FGF-NBD peptide caused significant cellular toxicity. In contrast to the cell culture results, delivery of NBD using 8K (octalysine) and 6R (six arginine) were the most effect in blocking inflammation following local, footpad delivery in a KLH-induced DTH murine model of inflammatory arthritis. These results demonstrate differences between PTDs for delivery of a functional cargo between cell types.
FUNGAL INFECTIONS OF THE EAR IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: A REVIEW
Borlingegowda Viswanatha,Khaja Naseeruddin
Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.4084/mjhid.2011.
Abstract: Otomycosis is a fungal infection of the external ear; middle ear and open mastoid cavity. Meyer first described the fungal infection of the external ear canal in 1884.External ear canal has the ideal warm humid environment for the proliferation of fungus. Although this disease is rarely life threatening, it can presents a challenging and frustrating situation for the otologist and patients due to long term treatment and high rate of recurrence .Otomycosis is seen more frequently in immunocompromised patients as compared to immunocompetent persons. Recurrence rates are high in immunocompromised patients and they need longer duration treatment and complications are more frequent in immunocompromised patients. In the recent years; opportunistic fungal infections are gaining greater importance in human medicine as a result of possibly huge number of immunocompromised patients. In immunocompromised patients, it is important that the treatment of otomycosis be vigorous, to minimize complications such as hearing loss, tympanic membrane perforations and invasive temporal bone infection . Fungal cultures are essential to confirm the diagnosis. Hematological investigations play a very important role in confirming the diagnosis and immunity status of the patients. In diabetic patients with otomycosis, along with antifungal therapy blood sugar levels should be controlled with medical therapy to prevent complications.
LATERAL SINUS THROMBOSIS IN OTOLOGY: A REVIEW
B VISWANATHA,KHAJA NASEERUDDIN
Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.4084/mjhid.2011.
Abstract: Lateral sinus thrombosis (LST) is usually occurs as a complication of middle ear infection .The involvement of lateral sinus during the course of ear infection was a well known complication in preantibiotic days .The decrease in the incidence of LST is due to the introduction of broad-spectrum antibiotics, early diagnosis and surgical treatment. Now, it is a rare complication of otitis media and poses a serious threat that warrants immediate medical and surgical treatment. The classical clinical picture is often changed by previous antibiotic therapy. An awareness of this rare potentially devastating condition and its varied presentations is necessary for early diagnosis and treatment. LST can also occur after head injury.
Red light accelerates and melatonin retards metamorphosis of frog tadpoles
Bhaskar N Joshi, Khaja Mohinuddin
BMC Physiology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6793-3-9
Abstract: Tadpoles, both intact and blind (optectomised), held in red light metamorphosed earlier than those held in white light. Addition of melatonin to aquarium water (5 micrograms/litre) prevented the red light-induced acceleration of metamorphosis both in intact and blinded tadpoles.Both ocular and extra-ocular perception of light is involved in red light-induced precocious metamorphosis. Melatonin inhibits the red light-induced acceleration of metamorphosis. The mechanism by which red light accelerates metamorphosis is not yet known. Melatonin counteracts red-light induced acceleration of metamorphosis in this tadpole.Frogs have a photosensitive pineal gland and therefore perception of light is both ocular and extra ocular [1]. Anuran amphibians are unique in possessing an extracranially located frontal organ having photoreceptor elements [2]. An earlier study from this laboratory reported that perception of light either through ocular or extra ocular (through frontal organ) pathways modulates ovarian function in the Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis [3]. Recently, in a follow up study we set up an experiment to examine chromotactic behaviour of the tadpoles. During the course of this study we noticed that tadpoles held in red light metamorphosed earlier than those held in white or other colours of light. We then focused on this finding and set out to study the effects of red light on tadpole metamorphosis in intact and blinded tadpoles. While intact tadpoles presented a model in which both ocular and extra-ocular photoreception was possible, the blinded tadpoles served as a model in which only extra-ocular photoreception was possible. We report here for the first time the effect of red light and the pineal hormone melatonin on metamorphosis of intact and blinded tadpoles of the Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis.Intact tadpoles held in red light metamorphosed within two weeks whereas those held in white light took six-eight weeks to complete metamorphosis (Fig
Data Count Driven Concurrency Control Scheme with Performance Gain in Mobile Environments
Mohammed Khaja Nizamuddin,Syed Abdul Sattar
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: In a mobile computing environment, clients can access data irrespective of their physical location. Data is shared among multiple clients and can be updated by each client independently. This leads to inconsistency of the data. Due to limitations of mobile computing environment traditional techniques cannot be used. Several concurrency control techniques are proposed in literature to prevent data inconsistency. In this paper we first analyze the existing scheme of concurrency control without locking and justify its Performance limitations. A new scheme is proposed which adaptively set the validity period of the cached data items based on the number of data items required and current load of the database server. Experimental results show performance benefits, such as increase in average response time and decrease in waiting time of the transactions.
An Improved, Prioritized Concurrency Control Scheme with Performance Gain in Mobile Environments
Mohammed Khaja Nizamuddin,Syed Abdul Sattar
ARPN Journal of Systems and Software , 2011,
Abstract: In a mobile computing environment, clients can access shared data irrespective of their physical location and can be updated by each client independently. This leads to inconsistency of the data. Several concurrency control techniques are proposed in literature to prevent data inconsistency. In this paper we first analyze the existing scheme of concurrency control without locking and justify its performance limitations. A new priority based scheme is proposed in which priority is given to the older transaction whenever conflict arises, there by decreasing transaction re-executions and current load of the database server. Experimental results show performance benefits such as increase in commit rate and decrease in re-execution of the transactions.
Gender-based treatment outcomes in diabetic hypertension
Damanhori AHH,Al Khaja KAJ,Sequeira R
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Background: In developing countries, gender-based treatment disparities in cardiovascular preventive therapy have received little attention. Aims: To evaluate the gender-based differences in cardiovascular disease risk profile, drug prescribing pattern, and blood pressure (BP) and glycemic control rates in diabetic hypertensives treated at primary care setting in Bahrain. Settings and Design: A retrospective study at primary care setting. Materials and Methods: An audit of the medical records of 392 diabetic hypertensives (127 men, 265 women). Results: BP and glycemic targets were achieved in < 10% and < 13% of diabetic hypertensives, respectively. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors monotherapy was more often prescribed in males. Apart from this, no significant differences in prescribing pattern were observed between male and female diabetic hypertensives treated with either antihypertensive mono or multidrug therapies. With the exception of insulin which was more often prescribed to females, a similar prescribing pattern and rank order of antidiabetics, either as monotherapy or combinations, was observed in both genders. The majority of diabetic hypertensives were at high cardiovascular risk. The body mass index and total cholesterol level were greater in females. Prescribing lipid-lowering drugs and aspirin were suboptimal; aspirin was more often prescribed to males. There was no gender-based difference with regard to the use of lipid-lowering drugs. Conclusions: BP and glycemic controls were suboptimal in both male and female diabetic hypertensives treated by primary care physicians. Cardiovascular disease preventive strategies have received little attention regardless of gender or other risk factors. Gender-based treatment inequities also need to be addressed.
Psychotropic Drug Prescribing Trends in Bahrain: Implications for Sexual Functions  [PDF]
Khalid A. J. Al-Khaja, Reginald P. Sequeira, Mohammed K. Al-Haddad, Adel R. Al-Offi
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.34054
Abstract: Treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction is a frequent adverse effect of many psychotropic drugs. We have analyzed the prescribing trends and the likelihood of psychotropic-associated sexual dysfunction in outpatients with depression or other psychotic disorders treated by psychiatrists. A retrospective prescription audit was conducted at the Psychiatric Hospital, the only psychiatric facility in Bahrain that offers both inpatient and outpatient services. Psychotropic associated sexual dysfunction was graded as negligible (0), moderate (2+), moderately severe (3+) and uncertain (U) for antidepressants, and for antipsychotics as no effect (0), very low (1+), moderate (2+), moderately severe (3+) and uncertain (U) effect. As antidepressant monotherapy, a significant trend towards prescribing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; 3+) and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs; 3+) in females, and tricyclic antide-pressants (TCAs; 2+) in males was apparent. Atypical antidepressant mirtazapine (0) monotherapy was rarely prescribed. Mirtazapine with SSRIs or SNRI was the most often prescribed combinations followed by TCAs with other antidepressants. Risperidone (0 to 3+), an atypical antipsychotic, was the most popular antipsychotic prescribed to augment antidepressants; there was no gender-based difference. Clozapine (0) and olanzapine (1+) were rarely prescribed to augment antidepressant therapy. In Bahrain, the psychotropic prescribing trends suggest that there is a need to optimize drug therapy to achieve the therapeutic goal with minimal adverse impact on sexual function.
Antipsychotic and Anticholinergic Drug Prescribing Pattern in Psychiatry: Extent of Evidence-Based Practice in Bahrain  [PDF]
Khalid A. J. Al Khaja, Mohammed K. Al-Haddad, Reginald P. Sequeira, Adel R. Al-Offi
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.34055
Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the antipsychotic prescribing pattern and the prevalence of concurrent anticholinergic prescribing in a psychiatric referral hospital. A retrospective audit of prescriptions issued for outpatients was carried out at the Psychiatric Hospital, the only facility that provides psychiatric services for both inpatients and outpatients in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Antipsychotic monotherapy was prescribed for 89.2% patients, whereas polytherapy with two- and three-drugs in 10.4 and 0.4%, respectively. Atypical antipsychotics were prescribed more often (67.7%) than typical antipsychotics. Risperidone and haloperidol were the most frequently prescribed antipsychotics. Long-acting risperidone injection was the only depot preparation prescribed. The mean antipsychotic dose expressed as chlorpromazine equivalent (CPZeq; mg/day) was 242 (220 for monotherapy and 414 for polytherapy). The prevalence of high dose antipsychotic (mean CPZeq > 1000 mg/day) was 1.8%, prescribed at a mean CPZeq dose of 1531 (1925 for monotherapy and 1137 for polytherapy), mainly attributed to haloperidol. Anticholinergics were co-prescribed for almost two third of patients receiving antipsychotics, particularly for those on polytherapy (monotherapy 57.3%; poly-therapy 87.5%). Antipsychotic polytherapy, high dose and co-prescription of an oral with a depot antipsychotic preparation were strongly associated with concurrent prescription of anticholinergics. Procyclidine and orphenadrine were the most often prescribed anticholinergics. In Bahrain, antipsychotic monotherapy is a common practice for outpatients with psychotic disorders. Some of the antipsychotic polytherapies, dosage strategies, and high prevalence of anticholinergic use are therapeutic issues that need to be addressed to foster evidence-based prescribing practice.
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