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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6443 matches for " Kevin Fennelly "
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Effectiveness of the Standard WHO Recommended Retreatment Regimen (Category II) for Tuberculosis in Kampala, Uganda: A Prospective Cohort Study
Edward C. Jones-López equal contributor ,Irene Ayakaka equal contributor,Jonathan Levin,Nancy Reilly,Francis Mumbowa,Scott Dryden-Peterson,Grace Nyakoojo,Kevin Fennelly,Beth Temple,Susan Nakubulwa,Moses L. Joloba,Alphonse Okwera,Kathleen D. Eisenach,Ruth McNerney,Alison M. Elliott,Jerrold J. Ellner,Peter G. Smith,Roy D. Mugerwa
PLOS Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000427
Abstract: Background Each year, 10%–20% of patients with tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries present with previously treated TB and are empirically started on a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended standardized retreatment regimen. The effectiveness of this retreatment regimen has not been systematically evaluated. Methods and Findings From July 2003 to January 2007, we enrolled smear-positive, pulmonary TB patients into a prospective cohort to study treatment outcomes and mortality during and after treatment with the standardized retreatment regimen. Median time of follow-up was 21 months (interquartile range 12–33 months). A total of 29/148 (20%) HIV-uninfected and 37/140 (26%) HIV-infected patients had an unsuccessful treatment outcome. In a multiple logistic regression analysis to adjust for confounding, factors associated with an unsuccessful treatment outcome were poor adherence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] associated with missing half or more of scheduled doses 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10–5.22), HIV infection (2.16; 1.01–4.61), age (aOR for 10-year increase 1.59; 1.13–2.25), and duration of TB symptoms (aOR for 1-month increase 1.12; 1.04–1.20). All patients with multidrug-resistant TB had an unsuccessful treatment outcome. HIV-infected individuals were more likely to die than HIV-uninfected individuals (p<0.0001). Multidrug-resistant TB at enrolment was the only common risk factor for death during follow-up for both HIV-infected (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 17.9; 6.0–53.4) and HIV-uninfected (14.7; 4.1–52.2) individuals. Other risk factors for death during follow-up among HIV-infected patients were CD4<50 cells/ml and no antiretroviral treatment (aHR 7.4, compared to patients with CD4≥200; 3.0–18.8) and Karnofsky score <70 (2.1; 1.1–4.1); and among HIV-uninfected patients were poor adherence (missing half or more of doses) (3.5; 1.1–10.6) and duration of TB symptoms (aHR for a 1-month increase 1.9; 1.0–3.5). Conclusions The recommended regimen for retreatment TB in Uganda yields an unacceptable proportion of unsuccessful outcomes. There is a need to evaluate new treatment strategies in these patients. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Treatment Outcomes of New Tuberculosis Patients Hospitalized in Kampala, Uganda: A Prospective Cohort Study
Bruce J. Kirenga, Jonathan Levin, Irene Ayakaka, William Worodria, Nancy Reilly, Francis Mumbowa, Helen Nabanjja, Grace Nyakoojo, Kevin Fennelly, Susan Nakubulwa, Moses Joloba, Alphonse Okwera, Kathleen D. Eisenach, Ruth McNerney, Alison M. Elliott, Roy D. Mugerwa, Peter G. Smith, Jerrold J. Ellner, Edward C. Jones-López
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090614
Abstract: Background In most resource limited settings, new tuberculosis (TB) patients are usually treated as outpatients. We sought to investigate the reasons for hospitalisation and the predictors of poor treatment outcomes and mortality in a cohort of hospitalized new TB patients in Kampala, Uganda Methods and findings Ninety-six new TB patients hospitalised between 2003 and 2006 were enrolled and followed for two years. Thirty two were HIV-uninfected and 64 were HIV-infected. Among the HIV-uninfected, the commonest reasons for hospitalization were low Karnofsky score (47%) and need for diagnostic evaluation (25%). HIV-infected patients were commonly hospitalized due to low Karnofsky score (72%), concurrent illness (16%) and diagnostic evaluation (14%). Eleven HIV uninfected patients died (mortality rate 19.7 per 100 person-years) while 41 deaths occurred among the HIV-infected patients (mortality rate 46.9 per 100 person years). In all patients an unsuccessful treatment outcome (treatment failure, death during the treatment period or an unknown outcome) was associated with duration of TB symptoms, with the odds of an unsuccessful outcome decreasing with increasing duration. Among HIV-infected patients, an unsuccessful treatment outcome was also associated with male sex (P = 0.004) and age (P = 0.034). Low Karnofsky score (aHR = 8.93, 95% CI 1.88 – 42.40, P = 0.001) was the only factor significantly associated with mortality among the HIV-uninfected. Mortality among the HIV-infected was associated with the composite variable of CD4 and ART use, with patients with baseline CD4 below 200 cells/μL who were not on ART at a greater risk of death than those who were on ART, and low Karnofsky score (aHR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.02 – 4.01, P = 0.045). Conclusion Poor health status is a common cause of hospitalisation for new TB patients. Mortality in this study was very high and associated with advanced HIV Disease and no use of ART.
Glutamate receptors may not protect against oxidative stress in C. elegans
Elizabeth Chatburn,Natausha Davis,Brenna Duffy,Eryn Fennelly
Impulse : an Undergraduate Journal for Neuroscience , 2012,
Abstract: Oxidative stress is considered a significant contributor to cellular damage, which may accumulate and result in cellular and organism senescence and death. Oxidative stress and damage have been correlated with a number of central nervous system (CNS) disorders in mammals, like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the current study investigates the survival of mutant C. elegans strains under oxidative stress. Using strains containing mutations in the glr-1 and nmr-1 genes encoding subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors, we found no significant differences of survival among wild type (WT) and glutamate receptor mutants, though prior research has suggested the involvement of glutamatergic neurons in antioxidant defenses.
Shareholder Wealth Effects of CEO Succession  [PDF]
Kevin Banning
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.36067
Abstract: Companies often dismiss their chief executive officers (CEOs) when financial performance falters. This study examines why, despite the positive stock market effects, the replacement of the CEO often does little to change a company’s financial performance. Thanks to the agency arrangements in some companies, new CEOs are able to negotiate favorable contracts which benefit the CEO rather than the shareholders. In a sample of 140 publicly-traded firms, we found that compensation systems for new CEOs differed as a function of institutional ownership, with total executive compensation higher and compensation risk lower in firms with lower levels of institutional ownership. Financial performance was also weaker in firms with less institutional ownership.
The nervous system and pH  [PDF]
Kevin Carlin
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2013.34028

The mix of cellular pumps, channels, transporters, and isoenzymes is genetically inherited. However, the environment has the ability to impact the cellular pumps, channels, transporters, and isoenzymes to some degree. Cellular pumps, channels, transporters and isoenzymes help control cellular pH and vice versa. Therefore possibly the pH in the nervous system is more variable than previously believed. If so, that could explain some of the changes we see in the nervous system. 

How to Raise Teachers’ Motivation through “Nudges” and Attribution Theory  [PDF]
Kevin Brinkmann
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.511002
Teachers’ motivation correlates positively with better teaching practices, higher student motivation, and better overall well-being. This case study reflects on an innovative approach being used to raise teachers’ motivation in India. The approach combines Nudge Theory (from the discipline of Political Science) and Attribution Theory (from the discipline of Psychology) into a comprehensive strategy that has the potential to change teachers’ long-term motivation, by changing their sense of identity.
Why 16 Million Bonded Labourers Remain Invisible: What Althusser Has to Say  [PDF]
Kevin Brinkmann
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.81003
Abstract: Seventy years after the UN Declaration of Human Rights, sixteen million bonded labours remain largely unnoticed in South Asia. Why? The most fundamental reason may not lie within economics or politics but in ideology.
Non-English speaking background patients in a predominantly English-speaking region may be more likely to present with a dementia other than Alzheimer’s disease  [PDF]
Kevin Ong, Michael Woodward
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2013.23013
Abstract: Information on 54 patients was retrospectively collected to compare the presentation trends of cognitive disorders in those of non-English speaking background (NESB)to English speaking background(ESB)attending an Australian memory clinic that extensively uses fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography(FDG PET) in the diagnosis of cognitive concerns. NESB patients were less likely to be diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease(AD)as the sole neurodegenerative diagnosis (Fisher exact test, p = 0.08), and NESB patients with dementia were more likely to have non-AD dementia (Fisher exact test, p = 0.06). They experienced symptoms 18 months longer before receiving a formal diagnosis (t(46) = 2.2, p = 0.03). Older elderly NESB females were under represented in those presenting to the clinic (Fisher exact test, p = 0.04). The clinical work-up of NESB patients as opposed to those of ESB relied more heavily on FDG PET (Fisher exact test, p = 0.04). ESB and NESB patients may have different attitudes towards dementia, affecting how they present, and biomarkers may be more heavily relied on when language affects history taking and neuropsychological testing.
Assessing Spatial Patterns of Plant Communities at Varying Stages of Succession  [PDF]
Kevin Aagaard, Gregg Hartvigsen
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.512177

There is a well known connection between the structural complexity of vegetative stands and ecosystem properties. Developing methods to quantify this structural complexity is an important goal for ecologists. We present an efficient and easily implemented field technique for calculating the shape of forest canopies, and the shape of forest stands as succession occurs, using fractal geometry. Fractal geometry can be used to describe complex, non-Euclidean objects that are common in natural systems. We tested the use of this tool in 22 vegetative and forested plots in Western New York State, USA. We found an asymptotic relationship for fractal dimension (D) as a function of basal area (BA; r2= 0.68). In a randomization test to investigate the robustness of D to different tree canopy shapes, we found that D was sensitive to canopy shape switching, suggesting that the method is able to differentiate among similar forests comprised of species having different shaped crowns. We conclude that the shape is conserved in vegetative areas as they progress from one stage of succession to the next (range of mean D: 2.56 to 2.68 across stages). Furthermore, we conclude that the shape filling properties—i.e., distribution of trunks and limbs in a forested area, measured as mean distance—are also conserved across vegetational chronosequences (F = 1.3189, df = 8, 3, p = 0.3341).

Cancer and pH—A Prospective  [PDF]
Kevin J. Carlin
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2014.43011
Abstract: How can cancer develop in so many different organs in so many different ways, but the outcome is similar enough to all be under the same title—cancer? There are so many causes of cancer—viruses, genetic defects, sunburn, gastroesophageal reflux, smoking, alcohol, radiation, chemicals, etc. The above variable well known etiologies of cancer could all induce a need for repair which involves alkalinizing the cells involved. Thus the commonality for cancers could be a pH change. If true, this could give the field of cancer prevention and therapy new avenues of pursuit.
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