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The Politics of Land Question in North Eastern Botswana in the Context of Southern Africa
Boga Thura Manatsha,Keshav Lall Maharjan
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2010.128.138
Abstract: Decades after the end of colonialism, the politics of land question has intensified and become more complex, particularly in southern Africa. This has renewed academic interest on the subject. Surprisingly, Botswana, a former British Protectorate, is one of those countries which are rarely mentioned in the ensuing literature. This gives the impression that the country does not have any land question to talk of. This study reveals that Botswana grapples with the colonial legacy of land expropriation in the north east were colonial penetration was intense. But the intensity of its land question politics is largely contained by the one-party dominant hegemonic politics and rigid neoliberal framework. Botswana has been ruled, uninterruptedly, by the Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) since independence in 1966. This party has successfully rebuffed any suggestions to implement a radical land reform in north east. This has neutralized the land question politics compared to neighbouring states were the political leadership are in support of radical reforms. The BDP is unwilling to confront colonial injustices because it believes that market interventionist strategies are the best. It does not want to jeopardize its relations with the former colonial master and the international community. It is sensitive to the prevailing chaotic land reform politics in neighbouring Zimbabwe. The opposition parties which, at some point, advocated for radical land reform are now generally fragmented and have been co-opted in the neoliberal framework too. Because of all these complexities, the landless do suffer. Their voices are presented herein.
Annual Subsistence Cycle of the Chepangs in mid-hills of Nepal: An Integration of Farming and Gathering
Keshav Lall Maharjan,Luni Piya,Niraj Prakash Joshi
Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/hjsa.v4i0.4671
Abstract: No Abstract DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hjsa.v4i0.4671 Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.IV (2010) 105-133
Urban Vulnerabilities in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Visualizations of Human/Hazard Interactions  [PDF]
Keshav Bhattarai, Dennis Conway
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2010.22012
Abstract: Excessive unplanned urban growth leads to many vulnerabilities and impacts on urban environments to varying degrees. However, the majority of the extant literature focuses on the problems related to location and socioeconomic conditions, rather than vulnerability processes and related environmental degradation. This paper analyzes the scope of urban vulnerabilities for five rapidly urbanizing and highly-congested cities in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. First, the historic context of the Valley’s uncontrolled urbanization sets the scene. Second, the optic is narrowed to focus upon the geographical features of the resultant urbanized Valley landscape that includes spatial arrangements and of houses, population densities, road networks, vehicular densities, garbage problems, and available open spaces. Additionally, seismic vulnerabilities in the urban areas are also considering in this examination. Third, three-dimensional visualizations of selected urban locations are presented to differentiate between vulnerable and relatively safe locations. The intent of this research is to contribute to the methodological understanding of human/hazards interactions in rapidly urbanizing cities of the Third World, which share similar socioeconomic conditions and environmental con-texts.
Role of Media in Provoking Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents in Urban Nepal  [PDF]
Sushma Dahal, Sabeena Maharjan, Raj Kumar Subedi, Juna Maharjan
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.71011
Abstract: At current era of globalization, media is the double edged sword that is important both for health education as well as the stimulation of unhealthy behaviour. In Nepal, though there is ban on most forms of advertising, it is not clear about placement of tobacco advertisement in TV, films and other forms of media. Studies about cigarette smoking and its association with media are inadequate in Nepal. The objective of this study was to explore the role of media in cigarette smoking habit of adolescents in Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 394 adolescent students by using questionnaire method in 3 randomly selected colleges of Kathmandu district, Nepal. Data were analysed by using bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Statistically significant relationship at 95% CI was found between cigarette smoking status and media related variables like: seeing cigarette advertisement, reading fashion magazine, attending musical program sponsored by cigarette companies, watching movies in cinema hall, liking heavy metal/hard rock music, television watching time and desire to smoke if favourite artist smokes. Multinomial logistic regression showed that those with high receptivity to cigarette advertisement were likely to be current smokers (OR = 71.416, CI: 8.796 - 579.823) and ever smokers (OR = 9.582, CI: 2.201 - 41.714) compared to never smokers. About 79% of respondents agreed that media teaches different ways of smoking to its audiences. Different forms of media including cinema, music, magazines, television, games and music sponsorship are found to be important predictors for smoking status of college students in urban Nepal. Thus smoking prevention activities should consider role of media in smoking provocation among adolescents.
Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Some Nepalese Medicinal Plants  [PDF]
Bijaya Laxmi Maharjan, Bikash Baral
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.48200

Antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of medicinal plants namely Usnea longifolia, Cetraria nepalensis, Parmelia minarum, Everniastrum nepalense, Rhododendron anthopogon and Fritillaria delavayi were analyzed via Folin-Ciocaltau assay, Ferric reducing activity power assay and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. All the tested plants depicted the antioxidant activity with variation in extent of activity among the plants. The FRAP (F-value: 387.4), DPPH (F-value: 89.684) and TPC (F-value: 559.163) values between the extracts showed the highly significant differences (P < 0.01). This study indicated the strong antioxidant potential of R. anthopogon among the plants tested.

Conflict in World Heritage Sites of Kathmandu Valley: A Case Study on the Conservation of Private Houses in Three Durbar Squares
Monalisa Maharjan
Nepal Tourism and Development Review , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/ntdr.v2i1.7381
Abstract: Conflict between heritage management authorities and the local residents has been critical to sustainable management of the World Heritage Sites (WHS) in Kathmandu Valley. This paper attempts to find out the reasons of such conflict by analyzing the facets of prevalent non-compliance of rules and regulations in Kathmandu Valley’s three World Heritage Sites: Hanuman Dhoka, Patan and Bhaktapur Durbar Squares. This is a qualitative analysis of perceptions, understanding and interests of the local people and the heritage management authorities. The paper also reviews the existing national and international policy provisions on conservation of WHS and makes special notes about the conservation of private houses in the WHS.
Anaesthesia for a patient with Wilson's Disease: A case report
SK Maharjan
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jkmc.v2i1.10552
Abstract: Wilson’s disease (WD), also known as hepatolenticular degeneration, is an autosomal recessive disorder and is due toreduction in the synthesis of copper transporter protein, Ceruloplasmin. Due to ceruloplasmin defi ciency, there is failureof excretion of copper in bile and it accumulates in body tissues leading to major hepatic and neurological involvement.Hepatic involvement after excess copper deposition leads to chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, which may altermetabolism and excretion of anaesthetic agents. The neurological effect is a movement disorder, with abnormalitiesof speech, tremor, incontinence (lack of self control) and dystonia being common features. In spite of many knownanaesthetic problems, there are very few reports of General Anaesthesia and Regional Anaesthesia in these patients, sowe report a case of Wilson`s Disease with anaesthetic management. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jkmc.v2i1.10552 Journal of Kathmandu Medical College , Vol. 2, No. 1, Issue 3, Jan.-Mar., 2013, page: 31-32
The haemodynamic and ventilatory responses with I-gel, laryngeal mask airway and tracheal intubation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy
SK Maharjan
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/jkmc.v1i2.8143
Abstract: Background: Despite use of adequate medications and techniques, tracheal intubation induces haemodynamic stress response, which can be minimized by using supraglottic airway devices instead of tracheal tube in elective surgical cases with adequate oxygenation and ventilation. Objectives: To compare haemodynamic variables and ventilation parameters of I-gel and laryngeal mask airway with tracheal intubation during laparoscopic surgery. Methods: This is a prospective randomized comparative study among 90 cases of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I and II, undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, who were equally divided into three groups of 30 patients each: I-gel group, Laryngeal mask airway group and Tracheal tube group. Randomization was done with pick up of cards from sealed envelope. Basal readings of heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure were recorded and these parameters were measured again before airway device placement, one, three and five minutes after airway manipulation, during carboperitoneum creation and before and after extubation. Oxygen saturation, end tidal CO 2 , airway pressure and inhaled and exhaled tidal volume and minute volume were monitored before, during and after carboperitoneum creation. Leak volume was calculated by deducing exhaled tidal volume from inhaled tidal volume. Statistical analysis (Analysis of variance test) was done to see the differences among the groups. Results: Haemodynamic perturbations were maximum with tracheal intubation and moderate with laryngeal mask airway while stable haemodynamics was observed with I-gel. Intra and inter-group comparison revealed significant differences after use of airway devices and after removal as well. Regarding ventilatory response, oxygenation and ventilation was well maintained with maximum airway pressure of mean ± SD: 20.11 ±3.46, 20.24 ±4.42, 19.05±4.82 cmH 2 O during carboperitoneum creation in I-gel, laryngeal mask airway and tracheal tube group respectively and oxygen saturation of 98 to 100% and end tidal CO 2 level of 31-35 mmHg. In all groups, minute volume was well maintained and leak volume of 18.88±12.40, 17.13±13.32 and 20.89±12.20 ml were recorded in I-gel, laryngeal mask airway and tracheal tube group respectively during carboperitoneum creation. There was no statistically significant difference among the groups at any time regarding the monitored parameters. Conclusion: Among the three airway management devices used during general anaesthesia with positive
Clinicomorphological Study Of Ovarian Lesions
Sushna Maharjan
Journal of Chitwan Medical College , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jcmc.v3i4.9549
Abstract: This prospective study was conducted at College of Medical Sciences-Teaching Hospital (CMS-TH) during December 2008 to May 2010. One hundred and fifty cases were analyzed. Age of the patients, parity, presenting symptoms, types of sur-gery, clinical diagnosis and complications were retrieved from case sheets. Surface epithelial tumors were more frequently observed above 30 years of age, (62.07%) cases. During 1st to 3rd decades of life, 62.8% germ cell tumors were seen; and sex cord tumors were seen in age group 41-60 years only. For all age groups, benign tumors were common than malignant tumors. There were 10.7% unmarried patients, 5.33% nulliparous, 35.55% of parity 1 to 2; 4% pregnant and 20 % postmeno-pausal women. There were 86.67% cases neoplastic, and 13.33% non-neoplastic ovarian lesions; 93.85% benign, 5.38% malignant and 0.77% borderline tumors. Surface epithelial tumors were the most common tumors (53.84%) followed by germ cell tumors (43.85%), constituted 46.7% and 38% among all ovarian lesions. The commonest benign tumors were serous cystadenomas and mature cystic teratomas, constituted 40% cases each. Dysgerminoma was the common malignant neoplasm (2.31%), all were seen in adolescents. Most of the other malignant neoplasms were observed above 40 years of age. Seventy percent (70%) of non-neoplastic lesions were hemorrhagic corpus luteum cysts. The commonest presenting symptom was pain in the lower abdomen (82%) followed by abdominal mass/ or distension (48.7%). Constitutional symp-toms were observed in malignant cases only. Grossly, majority of the ovarian lesions were of size ranging 5 to 15 cm; and 89.93% cystic lesions. There were 48.7% lesions in the right ovary and 45.3% in the left ovary; 6% bilateral ovarian lesions, all of which were observed in benign and non-neoplastic lesions. The common complication observed was torsion (6.7%) followed by rupture of the cysts (6%). Journal of Chitwan Medical College 2013; 3(4); 17-24 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmc.v3i4.9549
Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line
Danielle Berrington,Namrita Lall
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/564927
Abstract: Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3.48±0.218 μg/mL and 10.84±0.125 μg/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351 g and 1.09 g for McConnell’s Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC50 of 34.46±0.48 μg/mL and 126.3±1.00 μg/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1 μg/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8 μg/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare.
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