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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 529 matches for " Kern "
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Factors That Restrict or Support Retention among RN-to-BSN Nursing Students: A Replication Study  [PDF]
Brelinda Kern
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.44034

RN-to-BSN nursing programs fulfill a needed link to the BSN degree for nurses who hold associate or diploma degrees. Although enrollment rates are currently on the rise for all nursing programs retention remains an issue. Improving retention in nursing education, particularly RN-to-BSN programs, will help meet the demands for increasing numbers of BSN-educated nurses. The purpose of this study was to describe factors that restricted or promoted retention among RN-to-BSN students and examine if there was a difference in the measure of these factors between a group of senior students and junior students. Jeffreys’ (2004) nursing undergraduate retention and success (NURS) model, a conceptual framework, was used to guide the study. A non-experimental, descriptive, comparison design was used. This study was a replication of Jeffreys’ (2007) study utilizing a different population of RN-to-BSN students. Analysis was completed by descriptive techniques, and comparisons were made using independent t-tests. No significance was found between junior status students and senior status students for five factors of retention. Although all of the factors were found to be supportive, environmental factors were the least supportive and support from family and friends was found to the most supportive. More studies are needed focused on the RN-to-BSN student population to validate the findings of this study related to factors that restrict and support retention among this population so strategies can be developed to address the issues.

North pacific cool-down: 1940s-1960s  [PDF]
Kern E. Kenyon
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.28112
Abstract: Between the 1940s and the 1960s there was a significant lowering of the surface temperatures of the central North Pacific. This cool-down is discussed on the basis of analyses of a very large surface temperature data base, covering most of the North Pacific, which began in 1947 and continued for at least 30 years afterwards. A surface area more than 20 degrees of latitude by approximately 70 degrees of longitude, centered on 40°N, cooled down within about a ten year period by typically 0.5℃ and by as much as 1.0℃. Previously a permanent surface and near surface circulation was proposed in which a shallow very broad warm surface layer flows northeastward at mid-latitudes on the eastern side of the North Pacific while colder water returns southward to the east, west and underneath the warm surface current. It is suggested that variations in this hypothesized circulation, due to natural causes not yet completely understood, potentially provide a mechanism for producing a cooling down (or warming up) of a large region of the central North Pacific at mid-latitudes in a relatively short period of time (ten years or less).
Centrifugal force: an appreciation  [PDF]
Kern E. Kenyon
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.37086
Abstract: The centrifugal force is used to increase the physical understanding of five examples taken from fluid dynamics, geophysics and the solar system, as well as four hypothetical orbital problems. Each example involves a balance of forces between the centrifugal force and one or two other forces, such as a pressure gradient and a component of the force of gravity. Among the examples chosen for examination are: the orbital motion of fluid particles in surface grav-ity waves, the boundary layer character of steady flow next to a curved rigid surface, the tornado, the rotating self-gravitating mass and the three-body problem.
Southward surface flow in the central South Pacific  [PDF]
Kern E. Kenyon
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.411109
Abstract: A large-scale surface flow with a southward component is proposed for the central South Pacific Ocean based on an interpretation of existing closely spaced and accurately measured temperatures and salinities along two latitudes in two different southern hemisphere winters: 28o S (Scorpio) and five degrees south of that (WOCE). Such a southward flow is not predicted from theory nor is it shown on current charts and globes. The observed longitudinal maximum in surface temperature along 28o S is centered around 130o W and has an amplitude of at least 5o C and an east/west range of about 60o of longitude. This striking feature is most easily explained by horizontal transport from latitudes closer to the equator. Since temperature atlases show that equatorial surface temperatures are always highest in the west, the origin of the warm water probably is toward the western side of the ocean as well. Thus the surface flow surrounding the longitudinal temperature maximum should be directed to the southeast. Where the surface temperatures are maximum the mixed layer depths are relatively large in a convex downward lens with maximum depths of 100 m; a correlation that is consistent with warm water moving south and being cooled from above. Salinities are maximum near the temperature maximum, also suggesting that the source of the surface flow is at low latitudes, where evaporation is usually expected to exceed precipitation. It is conjectured that the large-scale southeastward flow of the South Pacific is the analogue of the northeastward wide warm current off California documented over 30 years ago.
Depth decay rate for surface gravity wave pressure and velocity  [PDF]
Kern E. Kenyon
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.51007

Linear governing equations are formulated for the depth decay of the pressure and velocity variations associated with propagating surface gravity waves. These governing equations come from combining Bernoulli’s equation for steady frictionless flow along a streamline and the crossstream force balance involving gravity, the centrifugal force and a pressure gradient. Qualitative solutions show that the pressure decreases downward faster than the velocity does and at a rate that is probably not the normal exponential decrease, which does not agree with the classical result. The radius of curvature of the streamlines is a non-constant coefficient in these equations and it needs to be supplied, either from measurements or another theory, in order to complete the solution of the derived governing equations. There is no sensitivity of the solution to the exact path the radius of curvature takes between its minimum value at the surface of a crest and trough and infinity at great depth. In the future measurements, perhaps streak photographs, will be needed to distinguish between the new and old theories.

Seasonal sea surface temperatures of the North Pacific  [PDF]
Kern E. Kenyon
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.58105

Mean seasonal surface temperatures of the North Pacific are illustrated in three maps. Twenty nine years of ship-injection temperatures are used for the whole North Pacific (north of 20?N). Map number two shows geographical regions of the month of highest sea surface temperature. There are two broad bands in the central and eastern basin, trending northeast/southwest, such that the September band lies east of the August band along a given latitude line. Map three depicts regions of the lowest monthly mean temperatures. March is the most common month, but in the middle of the ocean is a band of Februarys trending northeast/southwest. These features on maps two and three are interpreted in terms of the newly proposed wide warm surface current and its seasonal variations, mainly in horizontal position, flowing northeastward off California. It has not been found possible to compare maps two and three with the results from any earlier work. Map one shows the mean seasonal range of surface temperature, which has a character similar to maps going all the way back to the late 1800s, but is based on considerably more data.

Northward Heat Flux in Midwest Summers  [PDF]
Kern E. Kenyon
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.48105

Watching the winds in northwest Iowa during more than 30 summers has led me to two conclusions about the local atmosphere at ground level: there is a net northward transport of heat and water taking place throughout the summer; warm humid winds from the south continually alternate with cool dry winds from the north. The proposed northward heat transfer is consistent with the constraint, placed on the motions of the oceans and the atmosphere, of the earth’s heat balance due to the increased absorption of solar radiation at low latitudes compared to that at high latitudes. At mid-latitudes in the interior of continents, like North America, it is the job of the atmosphere alone to constantly help satisfy the global heat balance. Although qualitative in nature, the predicted northward heat flux is strongly based on frequent observations over lengthy time intervals.

Northwest Indian Ocean’s Spring Cooling  [PDF]
Kern E. Kenyon
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.610076

A major cooling down of the northwestern Indian Ocean’s surface, including the Arabian Sea, starts in May, according to a well-known world atlas of SSTs. This is before the southwest monsoon which usually begins in June. Also within one year, there are two surface temperature maxima and two minima, which is not typical for the northern hemisphere. A surface current, cooler than the surrounding water, crosses the equator in April and May heading north and east on the western side of the ocean. That proposal is consistent with the given SST information. The warmer surrounding water is then moved to east and south as a consequence. Since wind driving is not available for initiation, the relatively cool northeastward current is thought to be caused by a thermohaline force related to the unstable northward temperature gradient in the west, which is of constant sign right across the equator beginning in May: cool in the south monotonically increasing to warm in the north.

Hurricane Initiation: An Hypothesis  [PDF]
Kern E. Kenyon
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.65031

A hurricane initiation mechanism, believed to be new, is proposed for the eastern tropical North Atlantic Ocean. It starts with an outbreak of warm dry air from the Sahara Desert moving out over a fairly large region of ocean just west of the big bulge of Africa. Critical to the hypothesis is the experimental fact that heat diffuses significantly slower in air than water vapor does. In summer and early fall the desert air of the outbreak is warmer than the ocean surface it first encounters. Thus this air layer is cooled from below, which is initially stabilizing. However, water vapor diffuses up into the dry air faster than the air’s heat diffuses down to the sea surface, all over the generating region simultaneously. Consequently, a horizontally large layer of air somewhat above the sea surface becomes buoyant (less dense) and rises up as a unit, and the pressure of this layer decreases by the perfect gas law. Then the water vapor in the ascending air condenses around dust particles brought in from the desert, releasing heat and producing an additional upward acceleration of the already ascending air. Atmospheric pressure lowers further in accordance with Bernoulli’s law: where the (vertical) speed is greatest, the pressure is least. Measurements are suggested to validate the hypothesis if they do not already exist.

Capillary Wave’s Depth Decay  [PDF]
Kern E. Kenyon
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.616112
Abstract: Depth decay rates for pressure and velocity variations of a propagating capillary wave are found to be significantly different from each other, and neither one is expected to have the classical exponential character. To obtain these results Bernoulli’s equation along streamlines in the steady reference frame is combined with the force balance on fluid particles in the cross-stream direction: a pressure gradient offsets the centrifugal force on particles moving along a curved path. The two starting equations for pressure and velocity are nonlinear, but two linear first order ordinary differential equations are produced from them, one for each variable, and they can be integrated immediately. A full solution awaits further information on the non-constant coefficient, the radius of curvature function for the streamlines, either from observations or another theory.
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