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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 307 matches for " Kenya Murase "
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Methods for Estimating Specific Loss Power in Magnetic Hyperthermia Revisited  [PDF]
Kenya Murase
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.612071
Abstract: Our purpose in this study was to present three methods for estimating specific loss power (SLP) in magnetic hyperthermia with use of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and to compare the SLP values estimated by the three methods using simulation studies under various diameters of MNPs (D), amplitudes (H0) and frequencies of AMF (f). In the first method, the SLP was calculated by solving the magnetization relaxation equation of Shliomis numerically (SLP1). In the second method, the SLP was obtained by solving Shliomis’ relaxation equation using the complex susceptibility (SLP2). The third method was based on Rosensweig’s model (SLP3). The SLP3 value changed largely depending on the magnetic field strength (H) in the Langevin parameter (§) and it became maximum (SLP3max) and minimum (SLP3min) when H was 0 and ±H0, respectively. The relative difference between SLP1 and SLP2 was the largest and increased with increasing D and H0, whereas that between SLP1 and was the smallest and was almost constant regardless of D and H0, suggesting that H in ξ should be taken as H0 in estimating the SLP using Rosensweig’s model. In conclusion, this study will be useful for optimizing the parameters of AMF in magnetic hyperthermia and for the optimal design of MNPs for magnetic hyperthermia.
A Simulation Study on the Specific Loss Power in Magnetic Hyperthermia in the Presence of a Static Magnetic Field  [PDF]
Kenya Murase
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.612073
Abstract: Our purpose in this study was to present a method for estimating the specific loss power (SLP) in magnetic hyperthermia in the presence of an external static magnetic field (SMF) and to investigate the SLP values estimated by this method under various diameters (D) of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and amplitudes (H0) and frequencies (f) of an alternating magnetic field (AMF). In our method, the SLP was calculated by solving the magnetization relaxation equation of Shliomis numerically, in which the magnetic field strength at time t (H(t)) was assumed to be given by \"\", with Hs being the strength of the SMF. We also investigated the SLP values in the case when the SMF with a field-free point (FFP) generated by two solenoid coils was used. The SLP value in the quasi steady state (SLPqss) decreased with increasing Hs. The plot of the SLPqss values against the position from the FFP became narrow as the gradient strength of the SMF (Gs) increased. Conversely, it became broad as Gs decreased. These results suggest that the temperature rise and the area of local heating in magnetic hyperthermia can be controlled by varying the Hs and Gs values, respectively. In conclusion, our method will be useful for estimating the SLP in the presence of both the AMF and SMF and for designing an effective local heating system for magnetic hyperthermia in order to reduce the risk of overheating surrounding healthy tissues.
Numerical Analysis of the Magnetization Behavior in Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Presence of Multiple Chemical Exchange Pools  [PDF]
Kenya Murase
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2017.71001
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a simple and fast method for solving the time-dependent Bloch-McConnell equations describing the behavior of magnetization in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the presence of multiple chemical exchange pools. First, the time-dependent Bloch- McConnell equations were reduced to a homogeneous linear differential equation, and then a simple equation was derived to solve it using a matrix operation and Kronecker tensor product. From these solutions, the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1ρ) and transverse relaxation rate in the rotating frame (R2ρ) and Z-spectra were obtained. As illustrative examples, the numerical solutions for linear and star-type three-pool chemical exchange models and linear, star- type, and kite-type four-pool chemical exchange models were presented. The effects of saturation time (ST) and radiofrequency irradiation power (ω1) on the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effect in these models were also investigated. Although R1ρ and R2ρ were not affected by the ST, the CEST effect observed in the Z-spectra increased and saturated with increasing ST. When ω1 was varied, the CEST effect increased with increasing ω1 in R1ρ, R2ρ, and Z-spectra. When ω1 was large, however, the spillover effect due to the direct saturation of bulk water protons also increased, suggesting that these parameters must be determined in consideration of both the CEST and spillover effects. Our method will be useful for analyzing the complex CEST contrast mechanism and for investigating the optimal conditions for CEST MRI in the presence of multiple chemical exchange pools.
Effect of Signal Filtering on Image Quality of Projection-Based Magnetic Particle Imaging  [PDF]
Kazuki Shimada, Kenya Murase
Open Journal of Medical Imaging (OJMI) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojmi.2017.72005
Abstract: Purpose: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) allows for imaging of the spatial distribution of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in positive contrast, with high sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and high imaging speed. It is necessary to increase the signal-to-noise ratio to enhance the reliability of MPI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of signal filtering on the image quality and quantitativity in projection-based MPI using phantoms. Materials and Methods: We fabricated two kinds of phantom (cylindrical tube phantom with a diameter of 6 mm and A-shaped phantom) and evaluated the effect of signal filtering in terms of root-mean-square (RMS) granularity and the correlation coefficient between iron concentrations of MNPs and average MPI values for four filter modes (THRU, BPF, BEF, and LPF). In the THRU mode, the signal input was output without passing through the filter. In the BPF mode, only the third-harmonic signal was passed using a band-pass filter (central frequency: 1200 Hz, band width: 1/3 octave). In the BEF mode, the first-harmonic signal was eliminated using a band-elimination filter (central frequency: 400 Hz, band width: 1/3 octave). In the LPF mode, only the signal with a frequency less than the third-harmonic frequency was passed using a low-pass filter (cut-off frequency: 1200 Hz, -24 ± 2 dB/octave). The RMS granularity was obtained by calculating standard deviations of the pixel values in the MPI image without MNPs, whereas average MPI values were obtained by drawing a circular region of interest with a diameter of 6 mm on the MPI image of the cylindrical tube phantom. Results: When using the filtered back-projection (FBP) method with a ramp filter for image reconstruction, the RMS granularity and correlation coefficient decreased in the order of THRU, BPF, BEF, and LPF. In the BPF mode, however, some artifacts were observed. When using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm with an iteration number of 15, the correlation coefficient decreased in the order of THRU, BPF, BEF, and LPF, whereas the RMS granularity did not largely depend on the filter mode and was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that for the FBP method for all the filter modes. Conclusion: The BEF mode is adequate for the FBP method in projection-based MPI, whereas THRU is a best option in use of the ML-EM algorithm.
Lock-in-Amplifier Model for Analyzing the Behavior of Signal Harmonics in Magnetic Particle Imaging  [PDF]
Kenya Murase, Kazuki Shimada
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2018.85014
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to present a lock-in-amplifier model for analyzing the behavior of signal harmonics in magnetic particle imaging (MPI) and some simulation results based on this model. In the lock-in-amplifier model, the signal induced by magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in a receiving coil was multiplied with a reference signal, and was then fed through a low-pass filter to extract the DC component of the signal (output signal). The MPI signal was defined as the mean of the absolute value of the output signal. The magnetization and particle size distribution of MNPs were assumed to obey the Langevin theory of paramagnetism and a log-normal distribution, respectively, and the strength of the selection magnetic field (SMF) in MPI was assumed to be given by the product of the gradient strength of the SMF and the distance from the field-free region (x). In addition, Gaussian noise was added to the signal induced by MNPs using normally-distributed random numbers. The relationships between the MPI signal and x were calculated for the odd- and even-numbered harmonics and were investigated for various time constants of the low-pass filter used in the lock-in amplifier and particle sizes and their distributions of MNPs. We found that the behavior of the MPI signal largely depended on the time constant of the low-pass filter and the particle size of MNPs. This lock-in-amplifier model will be useful for better understanding, optimizing, and developing MPI, and for designing MNPs appropriate for MPI.
Quantitative Assessment of the Effect of Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Tumor Vascular Activity Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography  [PDF]
Kenya Murase, Yoshinori Kusakabe, Shohei Miyazaki
Open Journal of Medical Imaging (OJMI) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojmi.2016.62005
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a method to quantitatively assess the effect of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on tumor vascular activity using dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and to investigate its usefulness using animal experiments. Mate-rials and Methods: The DCE-CT studies were performed in anesthetized Fisher rats bearing tumors using a 4-row multi-slice CT. The scanning started 4 s before a bolus injection of iodinated contrast agent (CA) (150 mgI/kg) from the tail vein using an automatic injector and lasted 60 s at 1-s in-tervals. The contrast enhancement (CE) images were generated by subtracting the CT images before and after the administration of CA. First, the DCE-CT studies were performed before and 15, 30, and 45 min after administration of N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) or vehicle, and the relative CE values were calculated by normalizing the CE image at each time point by that obtained from the first DCE-CT study. Second, we investigated the case when L-arginine (L-ARG) (200 mg/kg) and L-NNA (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) were administered after the first and second DCE-CT studies, respectively. Third, we investigated the case when L-NNA (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) and L-ARG (200 mg/kg) were administered after the first and second DCE-CT studies, respectively. Finally, we investigated the case when L-NNA (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) and L-ARG (200 mg/kg) were administered simultaneously after the first DCE-CT study. Results: The relative CE value significantly decreased after L-NNA administration in a dose-dependent manner (p-values = 0.0074 and <0.0001 for 0 vs. 3 mg/kg and 0 vs. 10 mg/kg, respectively, at 15 min, 0.0003 and <0.0001 for 0 vs. 3 mg/kg and 0 vs. 10 mg/kg, respectively, at 30 min, and 0.0367 and 0.0004 for 0 vs. 3 mg/kg and 0 vs. 10 mg/kg, respectively, at 45 min). When L-ARG was administered prior to the administration of 1 mg/kg L-NNA, the relative CE value at 45 min was significantly higher than that at 15 min. When L-ARG was administered after L-NNA administration, there was no significant difference between the relative CE values at 15 min and 45 min. These results suggest that when using L-NNA in combination with L-ARG, their effect on tumor vascular activity differs depending on the order of their administration. When L-NNA and L-ARG were administered simultaneously, there was a tendency for the relative CE value to be higher than that when only L-NNA was administered, at all injected doses of L-NNA. Conclusion: Our method using DCE-CT is useful for monitoring the effect
Detection and Early Phase Assessment of Radiation-Induced Lung Injury in Mice Using Micro-CT
Shigeyoshi Saito, Kenya Murase
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045960
Abstract: Radiation therapy is an important therapeutic modality for thoracic malignancies. However, radiation-induced pulmonary injuries such as radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis are major dose-limiting factors. Previous research shows that micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can detect radiation-induced lung injuries a few months following irradiation, but studies to assess the early response of lung tissue are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine if micro-CT could be used to detect and assess early-phase radiation–induced lung injury in mice. Twenty-one animals were divided into three groups: normal (n = 7), one day after x-ray exposure (n = 7), and at four days after x-ray exposure (n = 7). The x-ray-exposed groups received a single dose of 20 Gy, to the whole lung. Histology showed enlargements of the air space (Lm: mean chord length) following irradiation. 40.5±3.8 μm and 60.0±6.9 μm were observed after one and four days, respectively, compared to 26.5±3.1 μm in normal mice. Three-dimensional micro-CT images were constructed and histograms of radiodensity - Hounsfield Units (HU) - were used to assess changes in mouse lungs. Radiation-induced lung injury was observed in irradiated mice, by the use of two parameters which were defined as shifts in peak HU between ?200 to ?800 HU (PeakHU) and increase in the number of pixels at ?1000 HU (Number-1000). These parameters were correlated with histological changes. The results demonstrate that micro-CT can be used for the early detection and assessment of structural and histopathological changes resulting from radiation-induced lung injury in mice. Micro-CT has the advantage, over traditional histological techniques, of allowing longitudinal studies of lung disease progression and assessment of the entire lung, while reducing the number of animals required for such studies.
Application of Magnetic Particle Imaging to Pulmonary Imaging Using Nebulized Magnetic Nanoparticles  [PDF]
Kohei Nishimoto, Atsushi Mimura, Marina Aoki, Natsuo Banura, Kenya Murase
Open Journal of Medical Imaging (OJMI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmi.2015.52008
Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of applying magnetic particle imaging (MPI) to pulmonary imaging using nebulized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and to quantify the mucociliary clearance in the lung, using small animal experiments. Materials and Methods: Intrapulmonary administration of MNPs was performed in seven-week-old male ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice (n = 8) using a nebulized microsprayer connected to a high-pressure syringe containing 50 μL of MNPs (500 mM Resovist®). We imaged the lungs using our MPI scanner 2.5 hours, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days after the intrapulmonary administration of MNPs. The average MPI value was calculated by drawing a region of interest (ROI) on the lungs by taking the threshold value for extracting the contour as 20% of the maximum MPI value within the ROI. The MPI value was defined as the pixel value of the transverse image reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals. Mice were sacrificed immediately after the last MPI and X-ray CT studies on day 7, and 5 lobes of the lung in each mouse were extracted to confirm the accumulation of iron using Berlin blue staining. Results: We could visualize the distribution of MNPs in the lungs as positive contrast using MPI with use of nebulized MNPs. The presence of iron in the lung was confirmed by Berlin blue staining. The average MPI value decreased with time and tended to saturate. The clearance rate was calculated to be 0.505 day1 from the time course of the average MPI value in the lungs. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that MPI can be applied to pulmonary imaging by nebulizing MNPs and can be useful for quantifying the mucociliary clearance in the lung.
Visualization of Magnetic Nanofibers Using Magnetic Particle Imaging  [PDF]
Kenya Murase, Atsushi Mimura, Natsuo Banura, Kohei Nishimoto, Hiroshige Takata
Open Journal of Medical Imaging (OJMI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmi.2015.52009
Abstract: Purpose: Magnetic nanofibers (MNFs) are nanofibers impregnated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a recently introduced imaging method that allows im-aging of the spatial distribution of MNPs. The purpose of this study was to develop MNFs and to investigate the feasibility of visualizing them using MPI and of heating them using an alternating magnetic field (AMF). Materials and Methods: First, chitosan nanofibers were cross-linked with glu-taraldehyde vapor in a sealed vial for 24 hours. Next, they were mixed with various concentrations of MNPs and the mixture was stirred for 1 hour using a magnetic stirrer. After the mixture was re-frigerated at –80℃ for 24 hours, it was freeze-dried for 24 hours. The morphology of the resultant MNFs was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and the magnetic properties were meas-ured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. After these measurements, we imaged the MNFs us-ing our MPI scanner, and investigated the correlation between the pixel values of the MPI image and the concentration of MNPs or the number of MNF sheets. We also heated the MNFs using AMF, and measured the temperature rise using an infrared thermometer. Results: The MNFs were suc-cessfully visualized using our MPI scanner, and the pixel values of the MPI image showed excellent correlation with the concentration of MNPs (r = 0.992) and the number of MNF sheets (r = 0.997). A significant temperature rise was observed under AMF, and the initial slope of the time-dependent temperature rise showed excellent correlation with the concentration of MNPs (r = 0.994) and the number of MNF sheets (r = 0.979). Conclusion: The MNFs developed in this study can be visualized using MPI and can be applied to magnetic hyperthermia. They will be useful in biomedicine including cancer therapy and tissue regeneration.
Usefulness of an Anisotropic Diffusion Method in Cerebral CT Perfusion Study Using Multi-Detector Row CT  [PDF]
Kenya Murase, Takafumi Nanjo, Yoshifumi Sugawara, Masaaki Hirata, Teruhito Mochizuki
Open Journal of Medical Imaging (OJMI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmi.2015.53015
Abstract: Purpose: To present an application of the anisotropic diffusion (AD) method to improve the accuracy of the functional images of perfusion parameters such as cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) generated from cerebral CT perfusion studies using multi-detector row CT (MDCT). Materials and Methods: Continuous scans (1 sec/rotation ×60 sec) consisting of four 5-mm-thick contiguous slices were acquired after an intravenous injection of iodinated contrast material in 6 patients with cerebrovascular disease using an MDCT scanner with a tube voltage of 80 kVp and a tube current of 200 mA. New image data were generated by thinning out the above original images at an interval of 2 sec or 3 sec. The thinned-out images were then interpolated by linear interpolation to generate the same number of images as originally acquired. The CBF, CBV and MTT images were generated using deconvolution analysis based on singular value decomposition. Results: When using the AD method, the correlation coefficient between the MTT values obtained from the original and thinned-out images was significantly improved. Furthermore, the coefficients of variation of the CBF, CBV and MTT values in the white matter significantly decreased as compared to not using the AD method. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the AD method is useful for improving the accuracy of the functional images of perfusion parameters and for reducing radiation exposure in cerebral CT perfusion studies using MDCT.
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