Abstract:
Transport properties of bilayer quantum Hall systems at $\nu=1/q$, where $q$ is an odd integer, are investigated. The edge theory is used for the investigation, since tunneling between the two layers is assumed to occur on the edge of the sample because of the bulk incompressibility. It is shown that in the case of the independent Laughlin state tunneling is irrelevant when $\nu<1/2$ in the low temperature and long wave length limit. The temperature dependence of two-terminal conductance of the system in which only one of the two layers is contacted with electrode is discussed.

Abstract:
Fractional quantum Hall states in bilayer system at total filling fraction $\nu=1/2$ are examined numerically under some ranges of the layer separation and interlayer tunneling. It is shown that the ground state changes continuously from two-component state to one-component state as the interlayer tunneling rate is increased, while the lowest excited state changes discontinuously. This fact explains observed unusual behavior of the activation energy which reveals upward cusp as a function of interlayer tunneling. Some trial wave functions for the ground state and quasihole states are inspected.

Abstract:
We study the domain formation in the v=2/3 fractional quantum Hall systems basing on the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) analysis. The ground-state energy and the pair correlation functions are calculated for various spin polarizations. The results confirm the domain formation in partially spin polarized states, but the presence of the domain wall increases the energy of partially spin polarized states and the ground state is either spin unpolarized state or fully spin polarized state depending on the Zeeman energy. We expect coupling with external degrees of freedom such as nuclear spins is important to reduce the energy of partially spin polarized state.

Abstract:
Single-layer and Bilayer of graphene are new classes of two-dimensional electron systems with unconventional band structures and valley degrees of freedom. The ground states and excitations in the integer and fractional quantum Hall regimes are investigated on torus and spherical geometries with the use of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. At nonzero Landau level indices, the ground states at effective filling factors 1, 1/3, 2/3 and 2/5 are valley polarized both in single-layer and bilayer graphenes. We examine the elementary charge excitations which could couple with the valley degrees of freedom (so called valley skyrmions). The excitation gaps are calculated and extrapolated to the thermodynamic limit. The largest excitation gap at effective filling 1/3 is obtained in bilayer graphene, which is a good candidate for experimental observation of fractional quantum Hall effect.

Abstract:
Graphene is a two-dimensional carbon material with a honeycomb lattice and Dirac-type low-energy spectrum. In a strong magnetic field, where Coulomb interactions dominate against disorder broadening, quantum Hall ferromagnetic states realize at integer fillings. Extending the quantum Hall ferromagnetism to the fractional filling case of massless Dirac fermions, we study the elementally charge excitations which couple with the valley degrees of freedom (so-called valley skyrmions). With the use of the density matrix renomalization group (DMRG) method, the excitation gaps are calculated and extrapolated to the thermodynamic limit. These results exhibit numerical evidences and criterions of the skyrmion excitations in graphene.

Abstract:
We discuss the effects of disorder in time-reversal invariant topological insulators and superconductors in three spatial dimensions. For three-dimensional topological insulator in symplectic (AII) symmetry class, the phase diagram in the presence of disorder and a mass term, which drives a transition between trivial and topological insulator phases, is computed numerically by the transfer matrix method. The numerics is supplemented by a field theory analysis (the large-$N_f$ expansion where $N_f$ is the number of valleys or Dirac cones), from which we obtain the correlation length exponent, and several anomalous dimensions at a non-trivial critical point separating a metallic phase and a Dirac semi-metal. A similar field theory approach is developed for disorder-driven transitions in symmetry class AIII, CI, and DIII. For these three symmetry classes, where topological superconductors are characterized by integer topological invariant, a complementary description is given in terms of the non-linear sigma model supplemented with a topological term which is a three-dimensional analogue of the Pruisken term in the integer quantum Hall effect.

Abstract:
We study the effects of strong $1/r$ long-range Coulomb interactions in a Weyl semimetal. We consider a three-dimensional (3D) Dirac fermion system on a lattice with a time-reversal symmetry breaking term, and take into account $1/r$ long-range Coulomb interactions between the bulk electrons. This model is regarded as the case where magnetic impurities are doped into the bulk of a 3D topological insulator. With the use of the strong coupling expansion of the lattice gauge theory and the mean-field approximation, we analyze the system from the strong coupling limit. It is shown that parity symmetry of the system is spontaneously broken in the strong coupling limit, and a different type of the Weyl semimetal, in which time-reversal and parity symmetries are broken, appears in the strong coupling limit. A possible global phase diagram of a correlated Weyl semimetal is presented.

Abstract:
The quasi-particle tunneling phenomena in the paired fractional quantum Hall states are studied. A single point-contact system is first considered. Because of relevancy of the quasi-particle tunneling term, the strong tunneling regime should be investigated. Using the instanton method it is shown that the strong quasi-particle tunneling regime is described as the weak electron tunneling regime effectively. Expanding to the network model the paired quantum Hall liquid to insulator transition is discussed.

Abstract:
The natures of the ground state in a $\nu_{\rm T}=1$ bilayer quantum Hall system at a variety of layer spacing are investigated. At small layer separations the system exhibits spontaneous interlayer phase coherence. It is claimed that the Halperin's (1,1,1) state is not relevant in the incompressible regime near the incompressible to compressible transition point in which the Josephson-like effect was observed. The two-particle correlation function shows the deflated correlation hole at this regime. An effective model that can give a good approximation to the ground state is proposed. A connection to the modified composite fermion theory is discussed.

Abstract:
We study the magneto-transport properties on the disordered surface of a topological insulator attached with a ferromagnet/ferromagnet junction. Since, in the surface Dirac Hamiltonian, out-of-plane magnetization induces a mass gap, while in-plane magnetization has a role of the effective vector potential, the mechanism of magneto-transport is different between these two cases. The former is similar to the conventional one in ferromagnetic metals, while the latter is due to the shift of Fermi circles in momentum space. Our numerical calculations show that the magnetoconductance in in-plane configuration is robust against disorder compared to that in out-of-plane configuration.