Abstract:
The Top Runner Program, a new approach to enhancing the energy efficiency of appliances and vehicles, has been in-troduced in Japan. In this paper an empirical analysis of the impact of the program and the labeling systems on firms’ R&D efforts is carried out. The results show that the Top Runner Program and the labeling system for appliances led to increases in R&D expenditures by appliance producers. The program combined with the labeling system caused a 9.5% increase in appliance producers’ R&D expenditures. However, the Top Runner Program and the labeling system for motor vehicles had little or even a negative effect on the innovative activity of motor vehicle manufacturers. R&D ex-penditures by motor vehicle producers may have increased in response to the exhaust gas regulation for diesel-powered vehicles rather than the energy efficiency regulation.

Abstract:
A pan-sharpen technique artificially produces a high-resolution image by image fusion techniques using high-resolution panchromatic and low-resolution multispectral images.Thus, the appearance of the color image can improve.In this paper, the effectiveness of three pan-sharpening methods based on the HSI transform approach is investigated. Three models are the hexcone, double hexcones, and Haydn’s approach. Furthermore, the effect of smoothing the low-resolution multispectral image is also investigated. The smoothing techniques are the Gaussian filter and the bilateral filter. The experimental results show that Haydn’s model is superior to others. The effectiveness of smoothing the low-resolution multispectral image is also shown.

Abstract:
In order to construct a massive tensor theory with a smooth massless limit, we apply the Batalin-Fradkin algorithm to the ordinary massive tensor theory. By introducing an auxiliary vector field all second-class constraints are converted into first-class ones. We find a gauge-fixing condition which produces a massive tensor theory of desirable property.

Abstract:
The usual prescription for constructing gauge-invariant Lagrangian is generalized to the case where a Lagrangian contains second derivatives of fields as well as first derivatives. Symmetric tensor fields in addition to the usual vector fields are introduced as gauge fields. Covariant derivatives and gauge-field strengths are determined.

Abstract:
The recent experimental data on Coulomb breakup of the nucleus $^{31}$Ne are interpreted in terms of deformation. The measured large one-neutron removal cross-section indicates that the ground state of $^{31}$Ne is either s- or p-halo. The data can be most easily interpreted as the spin of the ground state being 3/2$^-$ coming from either the Nilsson level [330 1/2] or [321 3/2] depending on the neutron separation energy $S_n$. However, the possibility of 1/2$^{+}$ coming from [200 1/2] is not excluded. It is suggested that if the large ambiguity in the measured value of $S_n$ of $^{31}$Ne, 0.29$\pm1.64$ MeV, can be reduced by an order of magnitude, say to be $\pm$100 keV, one may get a clear picture of the spin-parity of the halo ground state.

Abstract:
Possible deformation of odd-N nuclei with N $\approx$ 28 towards the neutron drip line is investigated using the Nilsson diagram based on deformed Woods-Saxon potentials. Both weakly-bound and resonant one-particle levels are properly obtained by directly solving the Schr\"{o}dinger equation in mesh of space coordinate with the correct boundary condition. If we use the same diffuseness of the potential as that of $\beta$-stable nuclei, the energy difference between the neutron 2p$_{3/2}$ and 1f$_{7/2}$ levels becomes very small or the N=28 energy gap almost disappears, as the binding energies of those levels approach zero. This suggests that the ground states of those neutron drip line nuclei are likely to be deformed. In particular, the spin-parity and the magnetic moment of the ground state of odd-N nuclei, $^{43}_{16}$S$_{27}$ and $^{45}_{16}$S$_{29}$, are examined. Moreover, it is suggested that in $^{39}_{12}$Mg$_{27}$ lying outside the drip line the lowest resonant state may have 5/2$^{-}$, if the N=28 energy gap almost vanishes.

Abstract:
Covariant forms are given to a gauge theory of massive tensor field. This is accomplished by introducing another auxiliary field of scalar type to the system composed of a symmetric tensor field and an auxiliary field of vector type. The situation is compared to the case of the theory in which a tensor field describes a scalar ghost as well as an ordinary massive tensor. In this case only an auxiliary vector field is needed to give covariant expressions for the gauge theory.

Abstract:
Izawa's gauge-fixing procedure based on BRS symmetry is applied twice to the massive tensor field theory of Fierz-Pauli type. It is shown the second application can remove massless singularities which remain after the first application. Massless limit of the theory is discussed.

Abstract:
Using Woods-Saxon potentials and the eigenphase formalism for one-particle resonances, one-particle bound and resonant levels for neutrons as a function of quadrupole deformation are presented, which are supposed to be useful for the interpretation of spectroscopic properties of some light neutron-rich nuclei with weakly-bound neutrons. Compared with Nilsson diagrams in text books which are constructed using modified oscillator potentials, we point out a systematic change of the shell structure in connection with both weakly-bound and resonant one-particle levels related to small orbital angular momenta $\ell$. Then, it is seen that weakly-bound neutrons in nuclei such as $^{15-19}$C and $^{33-37}$Mg may prefer to being deformed as a result of Jahn-Teller effect, due to the near degeneracy of the 1d$_{5/2}$-2s$_{1/2}$ levels and the 1f$_{7/2}$-2p$_{3/2}$ levels in the spherical potential, respectively. Furthermore, the absence of some one-particle resonant levels compared with the Nilsson diagrams in text books is illustrated.