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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 148519 matches for " Kenneth B. Storey "
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Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Regulation in Anoxia Tolerance of the Freshwater Crayfish Orconectes virilis
Benjamin Lant,Kenneth B. Storey
Enzyme Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/524906
Abstract: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), the enzyme which catalyzes the rate determining step of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), controls the production of nucleotide precursor molecules (R5P) and powerful reducing molecules (NADPH) that support multiple biosynthetic functions, including antioxidant defense. G6PDH from hepatopancreas of the freshwater crayfish (Orconectes virilis) showed distinct kinetic changes in response to 20?h anoxic exposure. values for both substrates decreased significantly in anoxic crayfish; NADP+ dropped from ?mM to ?mM, and G6P decreased from ?mM to ?mM. Two lines of evidence indicate that the mechanism involved is reversible phosphorylation. In vitro incubations that stimulated protein kinase or protein phosphatase action mimicked the effects on anoxia on values, whereas DEAE-Sephadex chromatography showed the presence of two enzyme forms (low- and high-phosphate) whose proportions changed during anoxia. Incubation studies implicated protein kinase A and G in mediating the anoxia-responsive changes in G6PDH kinetic properties. In addition, the amount of G6PDH protein (measured by immunoblotting) increased by 60% in anoxic hepatopancreas. Anoxia-induced phosphorylation of G6PDH could contribute to modifying carbon flow through the PPP under anoxic conditions, potentially maintaining NADPH supply for antioxidant defense during prolonged anoxia-induced hypometabolism. 1. Introduction Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) is the rate determining enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). It plays an important role in regulating the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for many types of biosyntheses as well as pentose phosphates for DNA/RNA synthesis and 3–7 carbon sugars or sugar phosphates for many other uses [1, 2]. One important use of NADPH generated by the PPP is in antioxidant defense, with the NADPH being used to generate the reduced glutathione and thioredoxin that are primary sources of reducing power for antioxidant reactions. Indeed, elevated PPP activity (as a consequence of enhanced G6PDH activity) is often seen under conditions of oxidative stress [3], and G6PDH regulation appears to be critical to antioxidant defense, as seen in multiple studies where G6PDH is disrupted [4, 5]. Regulation of G6PDH has been documented in various systems from bacteria and yeast to plants and animals [6–9] with controls at multiple levels (transcriptional, translational and post-translational), especially under oxidative or salt stresses. Freshwater crayfish (Orconectes virilis)
Forever Young: Mechanisms of Natural Anoxia Tolerance and Potential Links to Longevity
Anastasia Krivoruchko,Kenneth B. Storey
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2010, DOI: 10.4161/oxim.3.3.12356
Abstract: While mammals cannot survive oxygen deprivation for more than a few minutes without sustaining severe organ damage, some animals have mastered anaerobic life. Freshwater turtles belonging to the Trachemys and Chrysemys genera are the champion facultative anaerobes of the vertebrate world, often surviving without oxygen for many weeks at a time. The physiological and biochemical mechanisms that underlie anoxia tolerance in turtles include profound metabolic rate depression, post-translational modification of proteins, strong antioxidant defenses, activation of specific stress-responsive transcription factors, and enhanced expression of cyto-protective proteins. Turtles are also known for their incredible longevity and display characteristics of “negligible senescence.” We propose that the robust stress-tolerance mechanisms that permit long term anaerobiosis by turtles may also support the longevity of these animals. Many of the mechanisms involved in natural anoxia tolerance, such as hypometabolism or the induction of various protective proteins/pathways, have been shown to play important roles in mammalian oxygen-related diseases and improved understanding of how cells survive without oxygen could aid in the understanding and treatment of various pathological conditions that involve hypoxia or oxidative stress. In the present review we discuss the recent advances made in understanding the molecular nature of anoxia tolerance in turtles and the potential links between this tolerance and longevity.
Novel control of lactate dehydrogenase from the freeze tolerant wood frog: role of posttranslational modifications
Jean Abboud,Kenneth B. Storey
PeerJ , 2013, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.12
Abstract: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis, plays a crucial role both in sustaining glycolytic ATP production under oxygen-limiting conditions and in facilitating the catabolism of accumulated lactate when stress conditions are relieved. In this study, the effects on LDH of in vivo freezing and dehydration stresses (both of which impose hypoxia/anoxia stress on tissues) were examined in skeletal muscle of the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. LDH from muscle of control, frozen and dehydrated wood frogs was purified to homogeneity in a two-step process. The kinetic properties and stability of purified LDH were analyzed, revealing no significant differences in Vmax, Km and I50 values between control and frozen LDH. However, control and dehydrated LDH differed significantly in Km values for pyruvate, lactate, and NAD, I50 urea, and in temperature, glucose, and urea effects on these parameters. The possibility that posttranslational modification of LDH was responsible for the stable differences in enzyme behavior between control and dehydrated states was assessed using ProQ diamond staining to detect phosphorylation and immunoblotting to detect acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation and nitrosylation of the enzyme. LDH from muscle of dehydrated wood frogs showed significantly lower levels of acetylation, providing one of the first demonstrations of a potential role for protein acetylation in the stress-responsive control of a metabolic enzyme.
An Overview of Stress Response and Hypometabolic Strategies in Caenorhabditis elegans: Conserved and Contrasting Signals with the Mammalian System
Benjamin Lant, Kenneth B. Storey
International Journal of Biological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Studies of the molecular mechanisms that are involved in stress responses (environmental or physiological) have long been used to make links to disease states in humans. The nematode model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, undergoes a state of hypometabolism called the 'dauer' stage. This period of developmental arrest is characterized by a significant reduction in metabolic rate, triggered by ambient temperature increase and restricted oxygen/ nutrients. C. elegans employs a number of signal transduction cascades in order to adapt to these unfavourable conditions and survive for long times with severely reduced energy production. The suppression of cellular metabolism, providing energetic homeostasis, is critical to the survival of nematodes through the dauer period. This transition displays molecular mechanisms that are fundamental to control of hypometabolism across the animal kingdom. In general, mammalian systems are highly inelastic to environmental stresses (such as extreme temperatures and low oxygen), however, there is a great deal of conservation between the signal transduction pathways of nematodes and mammals. Along with conserving many of the protein targets in the stress response, many of the critical regulatory mechanisms are maintained, and often differ only in their level of expression. Hence, the C. elegans model outlines a framework of critical molecular mechanisms that may be employed in the future as therapeutic targets for addressing disease states.
Forever Young: Mechanisms of Natural Anoxia Tolerance and Potential Links to Longevity
Anastasia Krivoruchko,Kenneth B. Storey
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2010, DOI: 10.4161/oxim.3.3.12356
Abstract: While mammals cannot survive oxygen deprivation for more than a few minutes without sustaining severe organ damage, some animals have mastered anaerobic life. Freshwater turtles belonging to the Trachemys and Chrysemys genera are the champion facultative anaerobes of the vertebrate world, often surviving without oxygen for many weeks at a time. The physiological and biochemical mechanisms that underlie anoxia tolerance in turtles include profound metabolic rate depression, post-translational modification of proteins, strong antioxidant defenses, activation of specific stress-responsive transcription factors, and enhanced expression of cyto-protective proteins. Turtles are also known for their incredible longevity and display characteristics of “negligible senescence.” We propose that the robust stress-tolerance mechanisms that permit long term anaerobiosis by turtles may also support the longevity of these animals. Many of the mechanisms involved in natural anoxia tolerance, such as hypometabolism or the induction of various protective proteins/pathways, have been shown to play important roles in mammalian oxygen-related diseases and improved understanding of how cells survive without oxygen could aid in the understanding and treatment of various pathological conditions that involve hypoxia or oxidative stress. In the present review we discuss the recent advances made in understanding the molecular nature of anoxia tolerance in turtles and the potential links between this tolerance and longevity.
Regulation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate deaminase in the freeze tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica
Christopher A Dieni, Kenneth B Storey
BMC Biochemistry , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2091-9-12
Abstract: Wood frog AMPD was subject to multiple regulatory controls: binding to subcellular structures, protein phosphorylation, and effects of allosteric effectors, cryoprotectants and temperature. The percentage of bound AMPD activity increased from 20 to 35% with the transition to the frozen state. Bound AMPD showed altered kinetic parameters compared with the free enzyme (S0.5 AMP was reduced, Hill coefficient fell to ~1.0) and the transition to the frozen state led to a 3-fold increase in S0.5 AMP of the bound enzyme. AMPD was a target of protein phosphorylation. Bound AMPD from control frogs proved to be a low phosphate form with a low S0.5 AMP and was phosphorylated in incubations that stimulated PKA, PKC, CaMK, or AMPK. Bound AMPD from frozen frogs was a high phosphate form with a high S0.5 AMP that was reduced under incubation conditions that stimulated protein phosphatases. Frog muscle AMPD was activated by Mg·ATP and Mg·ADP and inhibited by Mg·GTP, KCl, NaCl and NH4Cl. The enzyme product, IMP, uniquely inhibited only the bound (phosphorylated) enzyme from muscle of frozen frogs. Activators and inhibitors differentially affected the free versus bound enzyme. S0.5 AMP of bound AMPD was also differentially affected by high versus low assay temperature (25 vs 5°C) and by the presence/absence of the natural cryoprotectant (250 mM glucose) that accumulates during freezing.Maintenance of long term viability under the ischemic conditions in frozen muscle requires attention to the control of cellular energetics. Differential regulatory controls on AMPD by mechanisms including binding to muscle proteins, actions allosteric effectors, glucose and temperature effects and reversible phosphorylation adjust enzyme function for an optimal role in controlling cellular adenylate levels in ischemic frozen muscle. Stable modification of AMPD properties via freeze-responsive phosphorylation may contribute both to AMPD control and to coordinating AMPD function with other enzymes of ene
Protein kinase C in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica: reassessing the tissue-specific regulation of PKC isozymes during freezing
Christopher A. Dieni,Kenneth B. Storey
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.558
Abstract: The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, survives whole-body freezing and thawing each winter. The extensive adaptations required at the biochemical level are facilitated by alterations to signaling pathways, including the insulin/Akt and AMPK pathways. Past studies investigating changing tissue-specific patterns of the second messenger IP3 in adapted frogs have suggested important roles for protein kinase C (PKC) in response to stress. In addition to their dependence on second messengers, phosphorylation of three PKC sites by upstream kinases (most notably PDK1) is needed for full PKC activation, according to widely-accepted models. The present study uses phospho-specific immunoblotting to investigate phosphorylation states of PKC—as they relate to distinct tissues, PKC isozymes, and phosphorylation sites—in control and frozen frogs. In contrast to past studies where second messengers of PKC increased during the freezing process, phosphorylation of PKC tended to generally decline in most tissues of frozen frogs. All PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting decreased in phosphorylation levels in hind leg skeletal muscle and hearts of frozen frogs. Most PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected in livers and kidneys also declined; the only exceptions were the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641) antibody, which remained unchanged from control to frozen frogs. Changes in brains of frozen frogs were unique; no decreases were observed in the phosphorylation levels of any of the PKC isozymes and/or specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting. Rather, increases were observed for the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641), phospho-PKCδ (Thr505), and phospho-PKCθ (Thr538) antibodies; all other isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected in brain remained unchanged from control to frozen frogs. The results of this study indicate a potential important role for PKC in cerebral protection during wood frog freezing. Our findings also call for a reassessment of the previously-inferred importance of PKC in other tissues, particularly in liver; a more thorough investigation is required to determine whether PKC activity in this physiological situation is indeed dependent on phosphorylation, or whether it deviates from the generally-accepted model and can be “overridden” by exceedingly high levels of second messengers, as has been demonstrated with certain PKC isozymes (e.g., PKCδ).
Protein kinase C in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica: reassessing the tissue-specific regulation of PKC isozymes during freezing
Christopher A. Dieni,Kenneth B. Storey
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.391v1
Abstract: The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, survives whole-body freezing and thawing each winter. The extensive adaptations required at the biochemical level are facilitated by alterations to signaling pathways, including the insulin/Akt and AMPK pathways. Past studies investigating changing tissue-specific patterns of the second messenger IP3 in adapted frogs have suggested important roles for protein kinase C (PKC) in response to stress. In addition to their dependence on second messengers, phosphorylation of three PKC sites by upstream kinases (most notably PDK1) is needed for full PKC activation, according to current generally-accepted models. The present study uses phospho-specific immunoblotting to investigate phosphorylation states of PKC- as they relate to distinct tissues, PKC isozymes, and phosphorylation sites- in control and frozen frogs. In contrast to past studies where second messengers of PKC increased during the freezing process, phosphorylation of PKC tended to generally decline in most tissues of frozen frogs. All PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting decreased in phosphorylation levels in hind leg skeletal muscle and hearts of frozen frogs. Most PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected in livers and kidneys also declined; the only exceptions were the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641) antibody, which remained unchanged from control to frozen frogs. Changes in brains of frozen frogs were unique; no decreases were observed in the phosphorylation levels of any of the PKC isozymes and/or specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting. Rather, increases were observed for the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641), phospho-PKCδ (Thr505), and phospho-PKCθ (Thr538) antibodies; all other isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected in brain remained unchanged from control to frozen frogs. The results of this study indicate a potential important role for PKC in cerebral protection during wood frog freezing. Our findings also call for a reassessment of the previously-inferred importance of PKC in other tissues, particularly in liver; a more thorough investigation is required to determine whether PKC activity in this physiological situation is indeed dependent on phosphorylation, or whether it deviates from the generally-accepted model and can be “overridden” by exceedingly high levels of second messengers, as has been demonstrated with certain PKC isozymes (e.g. PKCδ).
Insights into the In Vivo Regulation of Glutamate Dehydrogenase from the Foot Muscle of an Estivating Land Snail
Ryan A. V. Bell,Neal J. Dawson,Kenneth B. Storey
Enzyme Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/317314
Abstract: Land snails, Otala lactea, survive in seasonally hot and dry environments by entering a state of aerobic torpor called estivation. During estivation, snails must prevent excessive dehydration and reorganize metabolic fuel use so as to endure prolonged periods without food. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was hypothesized to play a key role during estivation as it shuttles amino acid carbon skeletons into the Krebs cycle for energy production and is very important to urea biosynthesis (a key molecule used for water retention). Analysis of purified foot muscle GDH from control and estivating conditions revealed that estivated GDH was approximately 3-fold more active in catalyzing glutamate deamination as compared to control. This kinetic difference appears to be regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation, as indicated by ProQ Diamond phosphoprotein staining and incubations that stimulate endogenous protein kinases and phosphatases. The increased activity of the high-phosphate form of GDH seen in the estivating land snail foot muscle correlates well with the increased use of amino acids for energy and increased synthesis of urea for water retention during prolonged estivation. 1. Introduction Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; E.C. 1.4.1.3) is an important enzyme that contributes to a diverse set of metabolic processes. GDH catalyzes the following reversible reaction within the mitochondrial matrix: Through oxidative deamination, GDH gates the entry of numerous amino acid carbon skeletons into the Krebs cycle for increased energy production or gluconeogenic output. Furthermore, GDH-derived ammonium ions provide the primary source of nitrogen for the synthesis of urea via the urea cycle. In the reverse direction, GDH acts to synthesize L-glutamate for use in protein synthesis or, alternatively, transamination reactions. Given the importance of GDH in both carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism, it was hypothesized to be a critical enzyme in animals that experience drastic alterations to cellular biochemistry in response to harsh environmental conditions. Animals that live in seasonally hot and dry environments usually require some mechanism to survive periodic droughts and the scarcity of food that typically follows. One such mechanism is estivation, which is a state of aerobic torpor that is employed by a range of organisms including amphibians, reptiles, small mammals, and land snails [1]. Estivation entails major behavioral, physiological, and biochemical adaptations that allow for prolonged survival under harsh conditions. Particularly important for this
Anti-apoptotic signaling as a cytoprotective mechanism in mammalian hibernation
Andrew N. Rouble,Joshua Hefler,Hapsatou Mamady,Kenneth B. Storey
PeerJ , 2013, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.29
Abstract: In the context of normal cell turnover, apoptosis is a natural phenomenon involved in making essential life and death decisions. Apoptotic pathways balance signals which promote cell death (pro-apoptotic pathways) or counteract these signals (anti-apoptotic pathways). We proposed that changes in anti-apoptotic proteins would occur during mammalian hibernation to aid cell preservation during prolonged torpor under cellular conditions that are highly injurious to most mammals (e.g. low body temperatures, ischemia). Immunoblotting was used to analyze the expression of proteins associated with pro-survival in six tissues of thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. The brain showed a concerted response to torpor with significant increases in the levels of all anti-apoptotic targets analyzed (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, BI-1, Mcl-1, cIAP1/2, xIAP) as well as enhanced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at S70 and T56. Heart responded similarly with most anti-apoptotic proteins elevated significantly during torpor except for Bcl-xL and xIAP that decreased and Mcl-1 that was unaltered. In liver, BI-1 increased whereas cIAP1/2 decreased. In kidney, there was an increase in BI-1, cIAP and xIAP but decreases in Bcl-xL and p-Bcl-2(T56) content. In brown adipose tissue, protein levels of BI-1, cIAP1/2, and xIAP decreased significantly during torpor (compared with euthermia) whereas Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 were unaltered; however, Bcl-2 showed enhanced phosphorylation at Thr56 but not at Ser70. In skeletal muscle, only xIAP levels changed significantly during torpor (an increase). The data show that anti-apoptotic pathways have organ-specific responses in hibernators with a prominent potential role in heart and brain where coordinated enhancement of anti-apoptotic proteins occurred in response to torpor.
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