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The Role of Cytokine in the Lupus Nephritis
Yasunori Iwata,Kengo Furuichi,Shuichi Kaneko,Takashi Wada
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/594809
Abstract: Lupus nephritis (LN) is a major clinical manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although numerous abnormalities of immune system have been proposed, cytokine overexpression plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of LN. In the initial phase of the disease, the immune deposits and/or autoantibodies induce cytokine production in renal resident cells, leading to further inflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration and activation. Then, infiltrate leukocytes, such as macrophages (Mφ) and dendritic cells (DCs), secrete a variety of cytokines and activate naïve T cells, leading the cytokine profile towards T helper (Th)1, Th2, and/or Th17. Recent studies revealed these inflammatory processes in experimental animal models as well as human LN. The cytokine targeted intervention may have the therapeutic potentials for LN. This paper focuses on the expression of cytokine and its functional role in the pathogenesis of LN.
Glycoprotein Hyposialylation Gives Rise to a Nephrotic-Like Syndrome That Is Prevented by Sialic Acid Administration in GNE V572L Point-Mutant Mice
Mitutoshi Ito, Kazushi Sugihara, Tomoya Asaka, Tadashi Toyama, Toru Yoshihara, Kengo Furuichi, Takashi Wada, Masahide Asano
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029873
Abstract: Mutations in the key enzyme of sialic acid biosynthesis, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetyl-mannosamine kinase, result in distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV)/hereditary inclusion body myopathy (HIBM) in humans. Sialic acid is an acidic monosaccharide that modifies non-reducing terminal carbohydrate chains on glycoproteins and glycolipids, and it plays an important role in cellular adhesions and interactions. In this study, we generated mice with a V572L point mutation in the GNE kinase domain. Unexpectedly, these mutant mice had no apparent myopathies or motor dysfunctions. However, they had a short lifespan and exhibited renal impairment with massive albuminuria. Histological analysis showed enlarged glomeruli with mesangial matrix deposition, leading to glomerulosclerosis and abnormal podocyte foot process morphologies in the kidneys. Glycan analysis using several lectins revealed glomerular epithelial cell hyposialylation, particularly the hyposialylation of podocalyxin, which is one of important molecules for the glomerular filtration barrier. Administering Neu5Ac to the mutant mice from embryonic stages significantly suppressed the albuminuria and renal pathology, and partially recovered the glomerular glycoprotein sialylation. These findings suggest that the nephrotic-like syndrome observed in these mutant mice resulted from impaired glomerular filtration due to the hyposialylation of podocyte glycoproteins, including podocalyxin. Furthermore, it was possible to prevent the nephrotic-like disease in these mice by beginning Neu5Ac treatment during gestation.
The Impacts of Albuminuria and Low eGFR on the Risk of Cardiovascular Death, All-Cause Mortality, and Renal Events in Diabetic Patients: Meta-Analysis
Tadashi Toyama, Kengo Furuichi, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Miho Shimizu, Akinori Hara, Yasunori Iwata, Shuichi Kaneko, Takashi Wada
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071810
Abstract: Background Precise effects of albuminuria and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and renal events in diabetic patients are uncertain. Materials and Methods A systematic review was conducted of the literature through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINHAL from 1950 to December 2010. Cohort studies of diabetic patients providing adjusted relative risk (RR) of albuminuria and eGFR for risks of cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and renal events were selected. Two reviewers screened abstracts and full papers of each study using standardized protocol. Results We identified 31 studies fulfilling the criteria from 6546 abstracts. With regard to the risk of cardiovascular mortality, microalbuminuria (RR 1.76, 95%CI 1.38–2.25) and macroalbuminuria (RR 2.96 95%CI 2.44–3.60) were significant risk factors compared to normoalbuminuria. The same trends were seen in microalbuminuria (RR 1.60, 95%CI 1.42–1.81), and macroalbuminuria (RR 2.64, 95%CI 2.13–3.27) for the risk of all-cause mortality, and also in microalbuminuria (RR 3.21, 95%CI 2.05–5.02) and macroalbuminuria (RR 11.63, 95%CI 5.68–23.83) for the risk of renal events. The magnitudes of relative risks associated with low eGFR along with albuminuria were almost equal to multiplying each risk rate of low eGFR and albuminuria. No significant factors were found by investigating potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analysis. Conclusions High albuminuria and low eGFR are relevant risk factors in diabetic patients. Albuminuria and low eGFR may be independent of each other. To evaluate the effects of low eGFR, intervention, or race, appropriately designed studies are needed.
Note on Nominal Rigidities and News-Driven Business Cycles  [PDF]
Kengo Nutahara
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25079
Abstract: A news-driven business cycle is a positive comovement of consumption, output, labor, and investment from the news about the future. We show that nominal rigidities, especially sticky prices, can cause it in a medium-scale DSGE economy through countercyclical movements of the price-markup. We also find that sticky wages cannot generate it, but they amplify the effects of news shocks.
Asset Prices, Nominal Rigidities, and Monetary Policy: Role of Price Indexation  [PDF]
Kengo Nutahara
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.33030

A recent paper by Carlstrom and Fuerst [“Asset Prices, Nominal Rigidities, and Monetary Policy,” Review of Economic Dynamics, Vol. 10, 2007, pp. 256-275] finds that monetary policy response to share prices is a source of equilibrium indeterminacy because an increase in inflation implies a high real marginal cost and low share prices in a sticky-price economy. We find that if the New Keynesian Phillips curve has a lagged inflation term caused by price indexation, this effect is weakened. Moreover, equilibrium indeterminacy caused by the monetary policy response to share prices never arises if all the firms that cannot re-optimize their prices follow price indexation.

Asset Prices, Nominal Rigidities, and Monetary Policy: Negative Monetary Policy Responses to Asset Price Fluctuations  [PDF]
Kengo Nutahara
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.48080
Abstract: Carlstrom and Fuerst [“Asset Prices, Nominal Rigidities, and Monetary Policy,” Review of Economic Dynamics, Vol. 10, 2007, pp. 256-275] find that a positive monetary policy response to share prices is a source of equilibrium indeterminacy. In this note, we investigate the negative response of a central bank to share prices. We find that a negative monetary policy response to share prices is also a source of equilibrium indeterminacy.
Transgenic up-regulation of alpha-CaMKII in forebrain leads to increased anxiety-like behaviors and aggression
Shunsuke Hasegawa, Takahiro Furuichi, Taro Yoshida, Kengo Endoh, Kenichi Kato, Megumi Sado, Ryouta Maeda, Aya Kitamoto, Takahisa Miyao, Ryosuke Suzuki, Seiichi Homma, Shoichi Masushige, Yasushi Kajii, Satoshi Kida
Molecular Brain , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1756-6606-2-6
Abstract: We generated transgenic mice overexpressing alpha-CaMKII in the forebrain under the control of the alpha-CaMKII promoter. In contrast to alpha-CaMKII (+/-) heterozygous knockout mice, alpha-CaMKII overexpressing mice display an increase in anxiety-like behaviors in open field, elevated zero maze, light-dark transition and social interaction tests, and a decrease in locomotor activity in their home cages and novel environments; these phenotypes were the opposite to those observed in alpha-CaMKII (+/-) heterozygous knockout mice. In addition, similarly with alpha-CaMKII (+/-) heterozygous knockout mice, alpha-CaMKII overexpressing mice display an increase in aggression. However, in contrast to the increase in defensive aggression observed in alpha-CaMKII (+/-) heterozygous knockout mice, alpha-CaMKII overexpressing mice display an increase in offensive aggression.Up-regulation of alpha-CaMKII expression in the forebrain leads to an increase in anxiety-like behaviors and offensive aggression. From the comparisons with previous findings, we suggest that the expression levels of alpha-CaMKII are associated with the state of emotion; the expression level of alpha-CaMKII positively correlates with the anxiety state and strongly affects aggressive behavior.Alpha-CaMKII is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in the forebrain [1-5]. In response to an increase in the intracellular concentration of Ca2+, alpha-CaMKII is activated through the binding of Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM), and then phosphorylates target proteins to activate or inactivate these proteins [1-5]. Furthermore, the prolonged activation of alpha-CaMKII by Ca2+/CaM results in the intramolecular autophosphorylation of Thr residues such as T286, T305, and T306 [1-5]. Autophosphorylation of T286 leads to a decrease in the dissociation of bound Ca2+/CaM and continuous partial activation even after the dissociation of Ca2+/CaM, thereby prolonging its activation. Thus, a transient increase in intracellula
Characterizations of Generalized Entropy Functions by Functional Equations
Shigeru Furuichi
Advances in Mathematical Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/126108
Abstract: We will show that a two-parameter extended entropy function is characterized by a functional equation. As a corollary of this result, we obtain that Tsallis entropy function is characterized by a functional equation, which is a different form that used by Suyari and Tsukada, 2009, that is, in a proposition 2.1 in the present paper. We give an interpretation of the functional equation in our main theorem.
A mathematical review of the generalized entropies and their matrix trace inequalities
Shigeru Furuichi
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2007,
Schr?dinger uncertainty relation with Wigner-Yanase skew information
Shigeru Furuichi
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.034101
Abstract: We shall give a new Schr\"odinger type uncertainty relation for a quantity representing a quantum uncertainty, introduced by S.Luo in \cite{Luo1}. Our result improves the Heisenberg uncertainty relation shown in \cite{Luo1} for a mixed state.
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