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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 224158 matches for " Ken C Chiu "
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The A54T polymorphism at the intestinal fatty acid binding protein 2 is associated with insulin resistance in glucose tolerant Caucasians
Ken C Chiu, Lee-Ming Chuang, Carol Yoon
BMC Genetics , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-2-7
Abstract: After genotyping, we identified 24 AA, 27 AT and 4 TT subjects. The TT subjects were combined with the AT subjects during the analysis due to its small sample size. No differences were noted in gender distribution, clinical features, and fasting lipid profile between the two genotypic groups (AA vs. AT/TT). The AT/TT group had a higher fasting plasma insulin concentration and a lower %S than the AA group (p = 0.0444 and p = 0.0461, respectively). However, no differences were noted in plasma glucose concentrations and %B. Univariate analysis revealed that this polymorphism explained 7.3% of the variation in %S. Multivariate analysis revealed that the polymorphism was an independent determinant for %S (p = 0.0434) and with body mass index accounted for 28.7% of the variation in %S. In contrast, this polymorphism had no impact on %B.The A54T polymorphism at the FABP2 locus is a risk factor for insulin resistance in a Caucasian population.The Pima Indians have a very high prevalence for type 2 diabetes mellitus (or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM) with evidence of strong familial aggregation [1]. In this population, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for the development of the disease [2], and maximal insulin action (i.e. glucose disposal rate at pharmacological insulin levels) was found to be determined by a co-dominantly inherited autosomal gene [3]. Initially, Bogardus and colleagues observed an association and linkage between insulin resistance and red cell antigens on chromosome 4q [4]. After the analysis of 128 sib-pairs using quantitative trait sib-pair analysis, they observed a significant linkage between maximal insulin action and the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene and the annexin V (ANX5) gene on chromosome 4q [5].It is well recognized that fatty acid metabolism is linked to insulin resistance [6,7]. Intestinal FABP2 contains a single ligand binding site that displays a high affinity for fatty acid [8]. Because it is
The vitamin D receptor polymorphism in the translation initiation codon is a risk factor for insulin resistance in glucose tolerant Caucasians
Ken C Chiu, Lee-Ming Chuang, Carol Yoon
BMC Medical Genetics , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-2-2
Abstract: There were 18 FF, 21 Ff, and 10 ff subjects. Since only 10 ff subjects were identified, they were pooled with the Ff subjects during analyses. The FF and Ff/ff groups had similar glucose levels at each time point before and after a glucose challenge. The Ff/ff group had higher insulin levels than the FF group at fasting (P=0.006), 30 minutes (P=0.009), 60 minutes (P=0.049), and 90 minutes (P=0.042). Furthermore, the Ff/ff group also had a larger insulin area under the curve than the FF group (P=0.009). While no difference was noted in %B, the Ff/ff group had a lower %S than the FF group (0.53 vs. 0.78, P=0.006). A stepwise regression analysis confirmed that the Fok I polymorphism was an independent determinant for %S, accounting for 29.3% of variation in %S when combined with waist-hip ratio.We report that the Fok I polymorphism at the VDR gene locus is associated with insulin sensitivity, but has no influence on beta cell function in healthy Caucasians. Although this polymorphism has been shown to affect the activation of vitamin D-dependent transcription, the molecular basis of the association between this polymorphism and insulin resistance remains to be determined.Although conflicting findings about bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with type 2 diabetes have been reported, there are substantial data which support the notion that type 2 diabetes is associated with increased BMD [1,2,3]. The Rotterdam Study [2], which involved 5,931 subjects, including 243 men and 355 women with type 2 diabetes, provides the most convincing evidence. They found that diabetic men and women had increased BMD independent of age, obesity, the use of estrogen, thiazide, or loop diuretics, impairment in the ability of daily living, and smoking [2]. Furthermore, hyperinsulinemia has been reported to be associated with an increased BMD in diabetic [4] and non-diabetic subjects [5]. From the Rancho Bernardo Study [5], the level of fasting insulin was significantly and positively assoc
Hepatic glucokinase promoter polymorphism is associated with hepatic insulin resistance in Asian Indians.
Ken C Chiu, Lee-Ming Chuang, Carol Yoon, Mohammad F Saad
BMC Genetics , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-1-2
Abstract: We identified 38 GG, 24 GA, and one AA subjects. The AA subject was pooled with the GA subjects during the analysis. No difference was noted in the demographic features between the two genotypic groups (GG vs. GA/AA). Compared to the GG group, the GA/AA group had a lower ISIH (p=0.002), a lower ISIM (p=0.009), a higher %B (p=0.014), and a higher dI/dG (p=0.030). Multivariate analysis revealed that this polymorphism is an independent determinant for ISIH (p=0.019) and along with age, waist-hip ratio, gender, and diastolic blood pressure accounted for 51.5% of the variation of ISIH. However, this polymorphism was a weak, but independent determinant for ISIM (p=0.089) and %B (p=0.083). Furthermore, it had no independent effect on dI/dG (p=0.135).These data suggest that the G-to-A polymorphism in the hepatic GCK promoter is associated with hepatic insulin resistance in Asian Indians.Glucokinase (GCK) was originally proposed to be a glucose sensor and metabolic signal generator in pancreatic beta cells and hepatocytes [1]. The discoveries of a linkage and subsequent identification of mutated GCK genes [2,3] in families with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) provide the strongest evidence for a crucial role of GCK in the pathogenesis of MODY [1]. However, the structural mutations (missense, nonsense mutation, or mutations affecting the splicing mechanism) of GCK were only found in less than 1% of patients with type 2 diabetes [4]. Thus, the mutated GCKs do not play a key role in the pathogenesis of most forms of diabetes.Nonetheless, some studies suggest that defective liver GCK may play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes [5]. In patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent elective cholecystectomy, hepatic GCK activity was decreased by about 50% in obese diabetic subjects compared to lean controls and obese controls [5]. Hyperglycemia in animals has been shown to decrease hepatic GCK activity, which can be reversed by treatment
HIV-complicated meningovascular syphilis: Atypical symptoms with promising result using low molecular weight heparin  [PDF]
William C. W. Huang, Chia-Huei Chiu
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2012.24029
Abstract: Both WHO and the CDC of Taiwan have reports indicating a dramatic increase in incidence of both syphilis and HIV. With their co-infection, neurosyphilis will become a major issue, and meningovascular insults may become more complex to these Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). We are reporting a young individual presented with quadriparesis and initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) greater than 20 points after having flu-like symptoms and diarrhea for a couple of days. The patient was later diagnosed as HIV-complicated meningovascular syphilis by positive blood and CSF laboratory tests. After seven-days of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) treatment, the patient improved dramatically with NIHSS score of 2 before being transferred to HIV center for further treatment. In contrary, there is case report that demonstrates mortality after treated meningovascular syphilis with rtPA and recanalization. As the world faltten and population of HIV spreads worldwide, the prevalence of stroke in young people may increase in the upcoming century. Only scattered case reports have been presented worldwide discussing the treatment of HIV complicated with meningovascular syphilis. We are the first to rescue the stroke in the patient of HIV with syphilis by LMWH. This case report may contribute to a better treatment for infectious patient with stroke.
Problems of the Availablity of Books in Nigeria
  Ken M. C. Nweke
Journal of Library and Information Science , 1993,
Abstract: 頁次:23-32
Reflections on State Security and Violence in Africa: A Prognostic Analysis  [PDF]
Chinedu C. Ike, Ken Ifesinachi, Nnamani G. Rebecca
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2014.43017
The 21st century beginning from 2000 to 2014 portrays Africa’s current situation as beset by conflicts and violence, drawing attention from every part of the world. As in decades earlier, it is no good news! Prominent among these are terrorism with its devastating impact, revolutions, uprisings, turmoil, communal conflicts, coup d’état, hatred and malicious actions towards ethnic groups, institutionalised division, deep rooted enmity between ethnic groups, dangerous religious sects, criminal political groups, corruption and all sorts of deprivation. This paper is however, a broad reflection of the general situation in the continent that we narrowed to Nigeria and its peculiarities. The Marxist theory of the post-colonial state was chosen as the tool for analysis. Further, we adopted quantitative descriptive analysis with secondary literature forming the base of our information source. In addition, we had personal discussions with security agents, though not systemised. Finally, we seek to make a further contribution to the ongoing intellectual efforts by identifying some areas that demand urgent attention. It is hoped that the strategic suggestions that this paper discusses, will provide a theoretical and practical platform for further studies and subsequent solution towards the negative news reports, thereby making news from Africa to be really, “good news”.
On the Operation of CMOS Active-Cascode Gain Stage  [PDF]
Yun Chiu
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2013.16004

An s-domain analysis of the full dynamics of the pole-zero pair (frequency doublet) associated with the broadly used CMOS active-cascode gain-enhancement technique is presented. Quantitative results show that three scenarios can arise for the settling behavior of a closed-loop active-cascode operational amplifier depending on the relative locations of the unity-gain frequencies of the auxiliary and the main amplifiers. The analysis also reveals that, although theoretically possible, it is practically difficult to achieve an exact pole-zero cancellation. The analytical results presented here provide theoretical guidelines to the design of CMOS operational amplifiers using this technique.

An adjuvant free mouse model of oral allergenic sensitization to rice seeds protein
Xiao-Wei Chen, Ken Lau, Fan Yang, Samuel Sun, Ming-Chiu Fung
BMC Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-11-62
Abstract: Groups of BALB/c mice were sensitized daily with freshly homogenized rice flour (30 mg or 80 mg) without adjuvant by intragastric gavage. In addition, the mice were challenged with extracted rice flour proteins at several time points intragastrically. Hypersensitivity symptoms in mice were evaluated according to a scoring system. Vascular leakage, ELISA of rice protein-specific IgE, histopathology of small intestine, and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis were conducted on challenged mice.An adjuvant free mouse model of rice allergy was established with sensitized mice showing increased scratching behaviors and increased vascular permeability. Rice protein-specific IgE was detected after eighteen days of sensitization and from the fifth challenge onwards. Inflammatory damage to the epithelium in the small intestine of mice was observed beyond one month of sensitization. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis results confirmed the positive rice allergy in the mouse model.We introduced a BALB/c mouse model of rice allergy with simple oral sensitization without the use of adjuvant. This model would serve as a useful tool for further analysis on the immunopathogenic mechanisms of the various rice allergens, for the evaluation of the hypersensitivity of rice or other cereal grains, and to serve as a platform for the development of immunotherapies against rice allergens.Rice, a major staple crop, is consumed by more than half of the world's population, especially in East Asia [1]. Multiple investigations show that rice may lead to a certain degree of hypersensitivity. Direct contact with raw rice, inhalation of rice pollen or vapor from boiling rice, and oral ingestion of cooked rice are a few defined routes that may trigger rice allergy [2-4]. Since the first identification of allergenicity from the rice protein fractions containing albumin, globulin and glutelin [5], rice allergy has been reported in many countries around the world, such as Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and s
Predicting the future from observable sequences of events in astrophysics I. Maximum Likelihood Estimation for a fixed number of parameters
C. R ken ,I. Lerche
Astrophysics and Space Sciences Transactions (ASTRA) , 2007, DOI: 10.5194/astra-3-1-2007
Abstract: Using analytical and numerical methods, estimates are given of future predictions in astrophysics that can be gathered from a sequence of observed events, for example for γ-ray bursts. Some general probability considerations are provided and then a maximum likelihood estimation, together with an approximation for the large number limit of possible events. Illustrations are given of the numerical maximum likelihood estimation programs in the situations of both a large number and a finite number of events. The effects of data uncertainty are also considered. Numerical calculations and comparisons with theoretical expectations are presented too.
Giant H II regions in the merging system NGC 3256: Are they the birthplaces of globular clusters?
Jayanne English,Ken C. Freeman
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/367915
Abstract: CCD images and spectra of ionized hydrogen in the merging system NGC3256 were acquired as part of a kinematic study to investigate the formation of globular clusters (GC) during the interactions and mergers of disk galaxies. This paper focuses on the proposition that giant H II regions, with an H_alpha luminosity > 1.5 x 10^{40} erg s^{-1}, are birthplaces of young populous clusters (YPC). We estimate 900 30-Doradus-like H II regions formed during the galaxy-galaxy interaction which created NGC 3256. A specific frequency argument for forming a sufficient number of GC, assuming that the NGC3256 merger remnant will be an elliptical galaxy, only requires that about 10% of these H II regions harbor YPC which survive several Gyr and have masses at least as large as the cluster R136 in 30 Doradus.
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