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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 162 matches for " Kely; "
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THE HISTORY OF THE ROMANIAN SYSTEM OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF THE ROYAL DICTATORSHIP AND THE NATIONALITY QUESTION
Zsolt SZéKELY
Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The goal of the present study is to explore a unique system of public administration that was carried out during the dictatorship of Charles II in Romania between the two World Wars. In a paradoxical manner, the only effort to solve the nationality question through legislation took place under his royal dictatorship. In 1938, the government published its three-part collection of laws, known as the Minority Statute, which defined the rights of minorities. The Minority Statute was intended primarily for foreign publication, and it was addressed more toward a foreign audience, which is also illustrated by the fact that it was only published in the official newspaper, and censors had prohibited it from being published in either the majority or the minority press. Among the circumstances surrounding the creation of the Minority Statute, it is interesting to note that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs played the largest role in its drafting process.
ISTORIA SISTEMELOR ADMINISTRATIVE DIN ROMANIA. DESPRE LEGILE MEDIEVALE ALE SATELOR SECUIESTI
Zsolt SZéKELY
Revista Transilvan? de ?tiin?e Administrative , 2004,
Abstract: The article is exploring an interesting and so far quite unstudied issue: the life and the organization, especially from judicial point of view, of the of the sekler communities in their early stagiest of existence, after they were collonized by the Hungarian King Arpad (1000 – 1003). The legislation that was developed with the participation of the entire community (usually the inhabitants of a village) is complex and based on clear judicial principle. Most of this laws can be easily applied in our days.
Bemerkungen zu einer geplanten deutsch-ungarischen kontrastiven Grammatik
Székely, Gábor
Argumentum , 2009,
Abstract: On the initiative of the Institute of German Studies of the University of Debrecen a research group has been formed under the supervision of J. Pilarsky. The research group aims to write a German-Hungarian contrastive grammar. Thereby, the point of departure is U. Engel’s widely known grammar. The German-Polish, German-Serbo-Croatian and German-Rumanian versions of this grammar have already been written, and the German-Hungarian version would join the latter. The present paper discusses the problems arising during the description of the adjective while comparing the two languages. The aspects of the description are the following: (1) The interference-phenomena directly deriving from the systems of the two languages; (2) The principles of the description, difficulties resulting from the difference between theoretical backgrounds; (3) Questions of ter minology; (4) Lexical comparison.
The existence of superluminal particles is consistent with the kinematics of Einstein's special theory of relativity
Gergely Székely
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/S0034-4877(13)00021-9
Abstract: Within an axiomatic framework of kinematics, we prove that the existence of faster than light particles is logically independent of Einstein's special theory of relativity. Consequently, it is consistent with the kinematics of special relativity that there might be faster than light particles.
On Why-Questions in Physics
Gergely Székely
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to introduce a mathematical logic based approach investigating why-type questions in physics.
What properties of numbers are needed to model accelerated observers in relativity?
Gergely Székely
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We investigate the possible structures of numbers (as physical quantities) over which accelerated observers can be modeled in special relativity. We present a general axiomatic theory of accelerated observers which has a model over every real closed field. We also show that, if we would like to model certain accelerated observers, then not every real closed field is suitable, e.g., uniformly accelerated observers cannot be modeled over the field of real algebraic numbers. Consequently, the class of fields over which uniform acceleration can be investigated is not axiomatizable in the language of ordered fields.
First-Order Logic Investigation of Relativity Theory with an Emphasis on Accelerated Observers
Gergely Székely
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: This thesis is mainly about extensions of the first-order logic axiomatization of special relativity introduced by Andr\'eka, Madar\'asz and N\'emeti. These extensions include extension to accelerated observers, relativistic dynamics and general relativity; however, its main subject is the extension to accelerated observers (AccRel). One surprising result is that natural extension to accelerated observers is not enough if we want our theory to imply certain experimental facts, such as the twin paradox. Even if we add the whole first-order theory of real numbers to this natural extension, it is still not enough to imply the twin paradox. Nevertheless, that does not mean that this task cannot be carried out within first-order logic since by approximating a second-order logic axiom of real numbers, we introduce a first-order axiom schema that solves the problem. Our theory AccRel nicely fills the gap between special and general relativity theories, and only one natural generalization step is needed to achieve a first-order logic axiomatization of general relativity from it. We also show that AccRel is strong enough to make predictions about the gravitational effect slowing down time. Our general aims are to axiomatize relativity theories within pure first-order logic using simple, comprehensible and transparent basic assumptions (axioms); to prove the surprising predictions (theorems) of relativity theories from a few convincing axioms; to eliminate tacit assumptions from relativity by replacing them with explicit axioms formulated in first-order logic (in the spirit of the first-order logic foundation of mathematics and Tarski's axiomatization of geometry); and to investigate the relationship between the axioms and the theorems.
Origin of the nucleus and Ran-dependent transport to safeguard ribosome biogenesis in a chimeric cell
Gáspár Jékely
Biology Direct , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6150-3-31
Abstract: A key selective force during the autogenous origin of the nucleus could have been the need to segregate ribosome factories from the cytoplasm where ribosomal proteins (RPs) of the protomitochondrium were synthesized. After its uptake by an anuclear cell the protomitochondrium transferred several of its RP genes to the host genome. Alphaproteobacterial RPs and archaebacterial-type host ribosomes were consequently synthesized in the same cytoplasm. This could have led to the formation of chimeric ribosomes. I propose that the nucleus evolved when the host cell compartmentalised its ribosome factories and the tightly linked genome to reduce ribosome chimerism. This was achieved in successive stages by first evolving karyopherin and RanGTP dependent chaperoning of RPs, followed by the evolution of a membrane network to serve as a diffusion barrier, and finally a hydrogel sieve to ensure selective permeability at nuclear pores. Computer simulations show that a gradual segregation of cytoplasm and nucleoplasm via these steps can progressively reduce ribosome chimerism.Ribosome chimerism can provide a direct link between the selective forces for and the mechanisms of evolving nuclear transport and compartmentalisation. The detailed molecular scenario presented here provides a solution to the gradual evolution of nuclear compartmentalization from an anuclear stage.This article was reviewed by Eugene V Koonin, Martijn Huynen, Anthony M. Poole and Patrick Forterre.Reviewed by Eugene V Koonin, Martijn Huynen, Anthony M. Poole and Patrick Forterre. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.The nuclear compartment is the defining universal feature of eukaryotic cells. The recently recognized structural similarity of nuclear pore complex (NPC) components and vesicle coat complexes (including COPI, COPII and clathrin coats) indicates that NPCs and the nuclear envelope (NE) evolved by the modification of a vesicle-trafficking system [1,2]. This supports aut
Did the last common ancestor have a biological membrane?
Gáspár Jékely
Biology Direct , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6150-1-35
Abstract: The (near) universality of the genetic code and the universal presence in all sequenced genomes of key components of translation proved beyond any doubt that all cellular life on Earth derives from one common ancestor. Yet, beyond these universal features the nature of the last common ancestor of cellular life (or LUCA) is still intensely debated [1-5]. The views range from a non-membrane bound, minerally compartmentalised pre-cell [2-4,6,7] to a complex Gram-negative bacterium with a double membrane [5,8]. The universal presence of two transmembrane proteins, the F0F1-ATPase and SecY seems to suggest that the universal ancestor was a membrane bound cell [1]. However, this argument has recently been challenged by the proposition that proteins with transmembrane helices were not inserted into 'biological membranes' but into 'hydrophobic layers' of C8–C12 aliphatic acids [3]. In this scenario archaebacterial and eubacterial cells originated independently from a minerally compartmentalised common ancestor.The idea of a membrane-less, minerally compartmentalised universal ancestor has been proposed because archaebacteria and eubacteria have membrane lipids of different chemical composition and chirality (archaebacteria have isoprenoid ethers of glycerol-1-phosphate, eubacteria have fatty acid esthers of glycerol-3-phosphate) and because these different lipids are synthesized by mostly non-homologous enzymes [1,2,8]. If one assumes that none of the two membrane forms could have evolved gradually from the other one or from a mixed membrane, the conclusion that eu- and archaebacterial membranes originated independently is inevitable. However, the divide between archaebacterial and eubacterial membranes may not be as deep as often imagined. The enzymes responsible for the chirality of the glycerol phosphate isomers (archaebacterial G1PHD and eubacterial G3PHD) also belong to larger enzyme families widely distributed among prokaryotes. G1PHD, synthesizing archaebacterial gly
Origin of phagotrophic eukaryotes as social cheaters in microbial biofilms
Gáspár Jékely
Biology Direct , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6150-2-3
Abstract: Here I propose that eukaryotic cells originated in a social environment, a differentiated microbial mat or biofilm that was maintained by the cooperative action of its members. Cooperation was costly (e.g. the production of developmental signals or an extracellular matrix) but yielded benefits that increased the overall fitness of the social group. I propose that eukaryotes originated as selfish cheaters that enjoyed the benefits of social aggregation but did not contribute to it themselves. The cheaters later evolved into predators that lysed other cells and eventually became professional phagotrophs. During several cycles of social aggregation and dispersal the number of cheaters was contained by a chicken game situation, i.e. reproductive success of cheaters was high when they were in low abundance but was reduced when they were over-represented. Radical changes in cell structure, including the loss of the rigid prokaryotic cell wall and the development of endomembranes, allowed the protoeukaryotes to avoid cheater control and to exploit nutrients more efficiently. Cellular changes were buffered by both the social benefits and the protective physico-chemical milieu of the interior of biofilms. Symbiosis with the mitochondial ancestor evolved after phagotrophy as alphaproteobacterial prey developed post-ingestion defence mechanisms to circumvent digestion in the food vacuole. Mitochondrial symbiosis triggered the origin of the nucleus. Cilia evolved last and allowed eukaryotes to predate also on planktonic prey. I will discuss how this scenario may possibly fit into the contrasting phylogenetic frameworks that have been proposed.Some aspects of the hypothesis can be tested experimentally by studying the level of exploitation cheaters can reach in social microbes. It would be interesting to test whether absorption of nutrients from lysed fellow colony members can happen and if cheaters can evolve into predators that actively digest neighbouring cells.The hypothesis
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