oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2019 ( 521 )

2018 ( 718 )

2017 ( 700 )

2016 ( 971 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 403844 matches for " Kelly M. Fillbrandt "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /403844
Display every page Item
Cholesterol Levels and Statin Use in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease Treated in Primary Care Settings
Patrick J. O’Connor, MD, MPH,Richard J. Gray, MD,Michael V. Maciosek, PhD,Kelly M. Fillbrandt, BS
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2005,
Abstract: Introduction Therapy with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, or statins, has proven to be effective in the treatment of lipid disorders. However, statin therapy continues to be underused, even though statins are a relatively safe and well-tolerated class of agents. In this study, we assessed trends in lipid control in patients with heart disease who receive most of their health care in primary care clinics. The objective was to determine whether systems of care implemented within a large medical group are associated with improved treatment and control of dyslipidemia in a high-risk group of coronary heart disease patients. Methods All adults with heart disease in a Minnesota medical group (N = 2947) were identified using diagnosis and procedure codes related to coronary heart disease (sensitivity = 0.85; positive predictive value = 0.89) in 1996. Study subjects were observed from 1995 to 1998. Subjects had a baseline and follow-up test for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Changes between baseline and follow-up measurements and trends in the use of statins and other lipid-active agents among the study subjects were analyzed. Results Among 1388 subjects with two or more eligible lipid measurements, mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol improved from 137.6 mg/dL to 111.0 mg/dL (P < .001), and mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol improved from 42.3 mg/dL to 46.3 mg/dL (P < .001). The percentage of patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤100 mg/dL rose from 12.5% to 39.8% (P < .001), and the percentage with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥40 mg/dL rose from 52.5% to 67.6% (P < .001). In multivariate models, statin use was identified as the main factor that contributed to the improvement in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .001). Men had greater decreases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than women after adjusting for other variables (P < .001). Statin use rose from 24.3% at baseline to 69.6% at follow-up. The statin discontinuation rate was 8.3% for baseline statin users and 12.2% for subjects who used statins at any time during the study period. Conclusion Investment in better heart disease care for patients in primary care clinics led to major improvement in lipid control over 30 months, primarily due to increased statin use. Improvements in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were sufficient to substantially reduce risk of subsequent major cardiovascular events.
Stretching in the prevention of hamstring strains: Attitudes, beliefs and current practices among football coaches in Mauritius  [PDF]
Kelly Chan, Fawzi M. Mahomoodally, Rajiv Veeren
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.22021
Abstract: Context and Objective: Hamstring strain is a common injury in football and it causes a significant amount of time lost from competition and training. Since poor flexibility is thought to predispose to muscle strain, stretching is routinely recommended during warm-up routines by coaches to prevent injuries. However, available evidence suggests that pre-exercise stretching (PES), especially static stretching, has no benefit on injury rates and may even reduce performance in explosive type activities. We designed this study to assess the attitudes, beliefs and practices of football coaches regarding stretching in the prevention of hamstring strains. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Mauritius Football Association (MFA). Participants: 26 football coaches registered with the MFA. Intervention: Questionnaires were distributed to football coaches of the MFA via sports officers. Questionnaires were then collected two weeks after distribution. Main Outcome Measures: Attitudes, beliefs and practices of football coaches regarding stretching in the prevention of ham-string strains. Results: MFA coaches held generally positive attitudes and beliefs towards stretching. 88% of coaches felt that PES is beneficial and 93% believed that PES prevents hamstring strains. The majority of coaches recommended stretching after warming up (81%) and after the training session (93%). 76% of coaches also advised stretching outside the training sessions. 96% of coaches used static stretching to stretch the hamstrings. The hamstrings were stretched on average for 4 times at each training session and the mean duration of a static stretch was 12 seconds. Conclusions: Nearly all coaches believed that PES prevents hamstring strains although evidence is limited. Some of the coaches’ beliefs and practices were not in line with current recommendations. Coaches reported that their stretching practices would be most likely influenced by scientific research. Thus there is an urgent need to devise awareness and training programmes in this area.
Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Alzheimer’s Disease  [PDF]
Fatimah M. Albrekkan, Marie Kelly-Worden
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2013.32A003
Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, leading to reduction in transmission through cholinergic fibers involved in processes of attention, learning, and memory. Mitochondria provide and regulate cellular energy and are crucial for proper neuronal activity and survival. Mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in early stages of AD and is involved in AD pathogenesis. This review focuses on the evidence supporting a clear association between amyloid-β toxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuronal damage/death in Alzheimer’s disease. To date, the beta amyloid (Aβ) cascade hypothesis still remains the main pathogenetic model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but its role in the majority of sporadic AD cases is uncertain. Furthermore, the “mitochondrial cascade hypothesis” could explain many of the biochemical, genetic, and pathological features of sporadic AD. This hypothesis promotes mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as the basis for Alzheimer’s disease. The mutations could lead to energy failure, increased oxidative stress, and accumulation of Aβ, which in a vicious cycle reinforces the mtDNA damage and oxidative stress.

Potential Regulators of Sporadic ALS Development and Alternative Therapeutic Options  [PDF]
Morenci M. Manning, Marie Kelly-Worden
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2015.61002
Abstract:
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. It is also among the most lethal as life expectancy is between 2 and 5 years after diagnosis. Sporadic ALS (sALS) makes up 90% of all ALS cases with little known about the exact mechanism of pathogenesis. Many potential regulators of sALS development have been proposed, several of which are examined in this review with supporting evidence. Interplay among these factors is examined more closely in hopes of shedding more light on sALS pathophysiology. There is a paucity of effective treatment options as the only FDA-approved drug for use, riluzole, has a positive but modest benefit in improving survival. Other treatments available merely target ameliorating symptoms of ALS. Alternative treatment options are also discussed. This study ultimately aims to make relevant connections among factors implicated in sALS development and to highlight alternative forms of treatment in improving neuron function and status, albeit controversial.
Local problems, local solutions: improving tuberculosis control at the district level in Malawi
Kelly,Paul M.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862001000200005
Abstract: objective: to examine the causes of a low cure rate at the district level of a tuberculosis (tb) control programme and to formulate, implement, and evaluate an intervention to improve the situation. methods: the study setting was mzuzu (population 60 000), where the annual smear-positive pulmonary tb incidence was 160 per 100 000 and the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) seroprevalence was 67% among tb patients. there is one tb treatment unit, but several other organizations are involved with tb control. an examination of case-holding activities was carried out, potential areas for improvement were identified, and interventions performed. findings: in 1990-91, the cure rate was 24% among smear-positive cases (29% among survivors to end of treatment). problems identified included a fragmented tb control programme; inadequate training and supervision; suboptimal recording of patients? addresses; and nonadherence to national tb control programme protocols. these problems were addressed, and in 1992-93 the cure rate rose to 68% (relative risk (rr) = 2.85 (95% confidence interval (ci) = 1.63, 4.96)) and to 92% among survivors to the end of treatment (rr = 3.12 (95% ci = 1.84, 5.29)). high cure rates are therefore achievable despite high hiv prevalence. conclusions: simple, inexpensive, local programmatic interventions can dramatically improve tb case holding. this study demonstrates the need for evaluation, training, and supervision at all levels of the programme.
Agricultura urbana: elementos valorativos sobre su sostenibilidad
Cantor,Kelly-M;
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural , 2010,
Abstract: urban agriculture : in the south of bogotá and in soacha, research has been developed on urban agriculture carried out by populations that have experienced forced displacement, in a context of scarce resources and social exclusion characterized by the limited coverage of basic utilities, by the violation of rights, and by the lack of opportunities for the residents. such activity is also analyzed in relation to vulnerable populations living under the poverty line. the analysis has been performed from their livelihood perspective using 20 local actors and public and private institutions that carried out urban agriculture programs as information sources and taking into account that city agriculture has connotations different from agriculture's connotation in rural environments. it has been found out that urban agriculture, as livelihood and occupation alternative, has a symbolic value and has been framed in a concept of collective wellbeing that transcends money concerns. urban agriculture reflects a peasant identity struggle for overcoming city life, but it is not an entirely sustainable activity. this article discusses some of the results from a research whose personal motivation was based on an institutional presence in urban agriculture processes in the study area for 4 years.
Integral Time and the Varieties of Post-Mortem Survival
Sean M. Kelly
Integral Review , 2008,
Abstract: While the question of survival of bodily death is usually approached byfocusing on the mind/body relation (and often with the idea of the soul as a special kindof substance), this paper explores the issue in the context of our understanding of time.The argument of the paper is woven around the central intuition of time as an “everlivingpresent.” The development of this intuition allows for a more integral or “complexholistic”theory of time, the soul, and the question of survival. Following the introductorymatter, the first section proposes a re-interpretation of Nietzsche’s doctrine of eternalrecurrence in terms of moments and lives as “eternally occurring.” The next section is atreatment of Julian Barbour’s neo-Machian model of instants of time as configurations inthe n-dimensional phase-space he calls “Platonia.” While rejecting his claim to have doneaway with time, I do find his model suggestive of the idea of moments and lives aseternally occurring. The following section begins with Fechner’s visionary ideas of thenature of the soul and its survival of bodily death, with particular attention to the notionof holonic inclusion and the central analogy of the transition from perception to memory.I turn next to Whitehead’s equally holonic notions of prehension and the concrescence ofactual occasions. From his epochal theory of time and certain ambiguities in hisreflections on the “divine antinomies,” we are brought to the threshold of a potentiallymore integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time and survival, which is treated in thelast section. This section draws from my earlier work on Hegel, Jung, and Edgar Morin,as well as from key insights of Jean Gebser, for an interpretation of Sri Aurobindo’sinspired but cryptic description of the “Supramental Time Vision.” This interpretationleads to an alternative understanding of reincarnation—and to the possibility of itsreconciliation with the once-only view of life and its corresponding version ofimmortality—along with the idea of a holonic scale of selves leading from individualpersonality as we normally experience it, through a kind of angelic self (a reinterpreted“Jivatma”), and ultimately to the Godhead as the Absolute Self. Of greater moment thansuch a speculative ontology, however, is the integral or complex-holistic way of thinkingand imagining that is called for by this kind of inquiry.
Local problems, local solutions: improving tuberculosis control at the district level in Malawi
Kelly Paul M.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine the causes of a low cure rate at the district level of a tuberculosis (TB) control programme and to formulate, implement, and evaluate an intervention to improve the situation. METHODS: The study setting was Mzuzu (population 60 000), where the annual smear-positive pulmonary TB incidence was 160 per 100 000 and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence was 67% among TB patients. There is one TB treatment unit, but several other organizations are involved with TB control. An examination of case-holding activities was carried out, potential areas for improvement were identified, and interventions performed. FINDINGS: In 1990-91, the cure rate was 24% among smear-positive cases (29% among survivors to end of treatment). Problems identified included a fragmented TB control programme; inadequate training and supervision; suboptimal recording of patients? addresses; and nonadherence to national TB control programme protocols. These problems were addressed, and in 1992-93 the cure rate rose to 68% (relative risk (RR) = 2.85 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.63, 4.96)) and to 92% among survivors to the end of treatment (RR = 3.12 (95% CI = 1.84, 5.29)). High cure rates are therefore achievable despite high HIV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Simple, inexpensive, local programmatic interventions can dramatically improve TB case holding. This study demonstrates the need for evaluation, training, and supervision at all levels of the programme.
The Effects of Future Climate Change on Energy Consumption in Residential Buildings in China  [PDF]
D. H. C. Chow, M. Kelly, J. Darkwa
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2013.15003
Abstract:

China is currently going through a phase of rapid mass urbanisation, and it is important to investigate how the growing built environment will cope with climate change, to see how the energy consumption of buildings in China will be affected. This is especially important for the fast-growing cities in the north, and around the east and south coasts. This paper aims to study the effects of future climate change on the energy consumption of buildings in the three main climate regions of China, namely the “Cold” region in the north, which includes Beijing; the “Hot Summer Cold Winter” region in the east, which includes cities such as Shanghai and Ningbo; and the “Hot Summer Mild Winter” region in the south, which includes Guangzhou. Using data from the climate model, HadCM3, Test Reference Years are generated for the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, for various IPCC future scenarios. These are then used to access the energy performance of typical existing buildings, and also the effects of retrofitting them to the standard of the current building codes. It was found that although there are reductions in energy consumption for heating and cooling with retrofitting existing residential buildings to the current standard, the actual effects are very small compared with the extra energy consumption that comes as a result of future climate change. This is especially true for Guangzhou, which currently have very little heating load, so there is little benefit of the reduction in heating demand from climate change. The effects of retrofitting in Beijing are also limited, and only in Ningbo was the effect of retrofitting able to nullify the effects of climate change up to 2020s. More improvements in building standards in all three regions are required to significantly reduce the effects of future climate change, especially to beyond 2020s.

Maternal Supplementation of Vitamin D During Lactation to Support Infant Vitamin D Needs: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Kelly Schossow, Alena M. Clark, Mary A. Harris
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2018.83027
Abstract: Human milk is generally considered to be insufficient in vitamin D. However, research completed in the 1980s showed that the vitamin D content of human milk is directly related to maternal serum vitamin D levels and therefore may potentially be adequate if the mother’s vitamin D levels are sufficient. Approximately one-third of the adult population, which includes breastfeeding women, in the United States have vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. Among infants, 90.4% of breastfed infants are vitamin D deficient compared to 15.4% of formula fed infants. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has therefore recommended all breastfed infants be directly supplemented with 400 IU per day of vitamin D to decrease the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and rickets. According to the AAP, compliance rates with this recommendation ranges between 2% - 36%. Because the recommendation to supplement may undermine breastfeeding, many pediatricians do not inform their patients of the need to supplement. Additionally, some parents are concerned about directly supplementing their infant as risks may include allergic reactions to the ingredients, aspiration pneumonia, accidental overdose, and changes in intestinal flora and pH which may compromise the immune benefits of human milk. A literature review was conducted to examine the effect of maternal supplementation with vitamin D during lactation on human milk vitamin D content and maternal and infant serum vitamin D levels. Although there is no current consensus regarding dosage and timing of maternal vitamin D supplementation, the literature suggests that high-dose vitamin D supplementation of the lactating mother is as effective at maintaining infant vitamin D levels as direct infant supplementation, while also correcting the mother’s vitamin D deficiency.
Page 1 /403844
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.