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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 298004 matches for " Kelley J. Dowd "
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The Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin Signature Motif: A Critical Element in the Allosteric Pathway that Couples Membrane Binding to Pore Assembly
Kelley J. Dowd,Rodney K. Tweten
PLOS Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002787
Abstract: The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) constitute a family of pore-forming toxins that contribute to the pathogenesis of a large number of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens.The most highly conserved region in the primary structure of the CDCs is the signature undecapeptide sequence (ECTGLAWEWWR). The CDC pore forming mechanism is highly sensitive to changes in its structure, yet its contribution to the molecular mechanism of the CDCs has remained enigmatic. Using a combination of fluorescence spectroscopic methods we provide evidence that shows the undecapeptide motif of the archetype CDC, perfringolysin O (PFO), is a key structural element in the allosteric coupling of the cholesterol-mediated membrane binding in domain 4 (D4) to distal structural changes in domain 3 (D3) that are required for the formation of the oligomeric pore complex. Loss of the undecapeptide function prevents all measurable D3 structural transitions, the intermolecular interaction of membrane bound monomers and the assembly of the oligomeric pore complex. We further show that this pathway does not exist in intermedilysin (ILY), a CDC that exhibits a divergent undecapeptide and that has evolved to use human CD59 rather than cholesterol as its receptor. These studies show for the first time that the undecapeptide of the cholesterol-binding CDCs forms a critical element of the allosteric pathway that controls the assembly of the pore complex.
Opportunities for nurses in the era of electronic health records  [PDF]
Tiffany Kelley
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.41003
Abstract:

Nursing leaders are currently faced with opportunities to advance nursing’s role in the use of electronic health records (EHRs). Nurse leaders can advance the design of EHRs with nurse informaticists to improve health outcomes of individual and populations of patients.

Brain mapping in cognitive disorders: a multidisciplinary approach to learning the tools and applications of functional neuroimaging
Daniel J Kelley, Sterling C Johnson
BMC Medical Education , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-7-39
Abstract: Learning gains associated with the course were assessed using polychoric correlation analysis of responses to the SALG (Student Assessment of Learning Gains) instrument.Student gains in the functional neuroimaging of cognition as assessed by the SALG instrument were strongly associated with several aspects of the course design.Our implementation of a multidisciplinary and active learning functional neuroimaging course produced positive learning outcomes. Inquiry-based learning activities and an online learning environment contributed positively to reported gains. This functional neuroimaging course design may serve as a useful model for other medical centers.A need in medical education is to inform students about the application of a continuum of multidisciplinary imaging techniques to understand disease and to encourage physicians to take part in clinical imaging trials [1]. Higher level brain functions, such as memory, metacognition, executive abilities, language, and emotions, form the basis of adaptive and rich social interactions and their dysfunction can now be better understood through experimentation and application of advanced functional imaging techniques. With statistical analyses of images collected using functional imaging modalities, clinicians and researchers have the capability to spatially localize significant brain activation in the form of functional brain maps that convey information about the neural systems subserving aspects of cognition. Functional brain mapping topics have yet to be incorporated into the curriculum at most medical centers even though these techniques have demonstrated great clinical potential for advancing medical practice by informing physicians about the function of scanned brain structures [2-5]. This is in contrast to radiological neuroimaging techniques like CT and MRI that are incorporated into the medical curriculum [6] and are readily used to provide information about gross structural anatomy and pathology in clinical
Dynamical Determination of the Fundamental Couplings
J. Hagelin,S. Kelley,Sunil Rawal
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.76.1998
Abstract: We demonstrate that supergravity models containing the Standard Model, dilaton and modulus naturally lead to dynamical symmetry breaking with excellent phenomenology. We assume primordial supersymmetry breaking in the form of a constant contribution to the superpotential. String inspired relations link fundamental couplings to the dilaton vev. We specialize to a class of models inspired by the $4$-$D$ fermionic string. Non-renormalizable terms in the superpotential naturally produce the Higgs mixing parameter $\mu$ suitable for our mechanism. We discuss extensions and limitations of our approach.
Data Acquisition, Triggering, and Filtering at the Auger Engineering Radio Array
J. L. Kelley,for the Pierre Auger Collaboration
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2012.11.153
Abstract: The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is currently detecting cosmic rays of energies at and above 10^17 eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory, by triggering on the radio emission produced in the associated air showers. The radio-detection technique must cope with a significant background of man-made radio-frequency interference, but can provide information on shower development with a high duty cycle. We discuss our techniques to handle the challenges of self-triggered radio detection in a low-power autonomous array, including triggering and filtering algorithms, data acquisition design, and communication systems.
Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans Arising in a Decorative Tattoo
Paul A. Baker,Geraldine J. O'Dowd,Irfan U. Khan
Sarcoma , 2005, DOI: 10.1080/13577140500094289
Abstract: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon, locally aggressive cutaneous tumour of intermediate grade malignancy. A number of reports have linked local trauma of varying aetiology with the later development of DFSP. In addition, a variety of skin disorders and, in rare cases, cutaneous tumours, have been described in association with decorative tattoos. This is often associated with delayed diagnosis. We report the first case of DFSP arising in a tattoo and discuss the available evidence for a causative link between DFSP and local trauma of this nature.
The role of VOC oxidation products in continental new particle formation
A. Laaksonen,M. Kulmala,C. D. O'Dowd,J. Joutsensaari
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: Aerosol physical and chemical properties and trace gas concentrations were measured during the QUEST field campaign in March–April, 2003, in Hyyti l , Finland. Our aim was to understand the role of oxidation products of VOC's such as mono- and sesquiterpenes in atmospheric nucleation events. Particle chemical compositions were measured using the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, and chemical compositions of aerosol samples collected with low-pressure impactors and a high volume sampler were analysed using a number of techniques. The results indicate that during and after new particle formation, all particles larger than 50 nm in diameter contained similar organic substances that are likely to be mono- and sesquiterpene oxidation products. The oxidation products identified in the high volume samples were shown to be mostly aldehydes. In order to study the composition of particles in the 10–50 nm range, we made use of Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer results. We found that during nucleation events, both 10 and 50 nm particle growth factors due to uptake of ethanol vapour correlate strongly with gas-phase monoterpene oxidation product (MTOP) concentrations, indicating that the organic constituents of particles smaller than 50 nm in diameter are at least partly similar to those of larger particles. We furthermore showed that particle growth rates during the nucleation events are correlated with the gas-phase MTOP concentrations. This indicates that VOC oxidation products may have a key role in determining the spatial and temporal features of the nucleation events. This conclusion was supported by our aircraft measurements of new 3–10 nm particle concentrations, which showed that the nucleation event on 28 March 2003, started at the ground layer, i.e. near the VOC source, and evolved together with the mixed layer. Furthermore, no new particle formation was detected upwind away from the forest, above the frozen Gulf of Bothnia.
The role of VOC oxidation products in continental new particle formation
A. Laaksonen,M. Kulmala,C. D. O'Dowd,J. Joutsensaari
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: Aerosol physical and chemical properties and trace gas concentrations were measured during the QUEST field campaign in March–April 2003, in Hyyti l , Finland. Our aim was to understand the role of oxidation products of VOC's such as mono- and sesquiterpenes in atmospheric nucleation events. Particle chemical compositions were measured using the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, and chemical compositions of aerosol samples collected with low-pressure impactors and a high volume sampler were analysed using a number of techniques. The results indicate that during and after new particle formation, all particles larger than 50 nm in diameter contained similar organic substances that are likely to be mono- and sesquiterpene oxidation products. The oxidation products identified in the high volume samples were shown to be mostly aldehydes. In order to study the composition of particles in the 10–50 nm range, we made use of Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer results. We found that during nucleation events, both 10 and 50 nm particle growth factors due to uptake of ethanol vapour correlate strongly with gas-phase monoterpene oxidation product (MTOP) concentrations, indicating that the organic constituents of particles smaller than 50 nm in diameter are at least partly similar to those of larger particles. We furthermore showed that particle growth rates during the nucleation events are correlated with the gas-phase MTOP concentrations. This indicates that VOC oxidation products may have a key role in determining the spatial and temporal features of the nucleation events. This conclusion was supported by our aircraft measurements of new 3–10 nm particle concentrations, which showed that the nucleation event on 28 March 2003, started at the ground layer, i.e. near the VOC source, and evolved together with the mixed layer. Furthermore, no new particle formation was detected upwind away from the forest, above the frozen Gulf of Bothnia.
Do anthropogenic or coastal aerosol sources impact on a clean marine aerosol signature at Mace Head?
C. O'Dowd,D. Ceburnis,J. Ovadnevaite,M. Rinaldi
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/acpd-13-7311-2013
Abstract: Atmospheric aerosols have been sampled and characterised at the Mace Head North East (N.E.) Atlantic atmospheric research station since 1958, with many interesting phenomena being discovered. However, with the range of new discoveries and scientific advances, there has been a range of concomitant criticisms challenging the representativeness of aerosol sampled at the station to that of aerosol over the open ocean. Two recurring criticisms relate to the lack of representativeness due to enhanced coastal sources, thereby leading to artificially high values to aerosol parameters, and to the influence of long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosol and its potential dominance over, or drowning-out of, a natural marine aerosol signal. Here we review the results of previous experimental studies into marine aerosols over the N.E. Atlantic and at Mace Head with the aim of evaluating their representativeness relative to that of an open ocean aerosol with negligible anthropogenic influence. Particular focus is given to organic matter (OM) aerosol. In summary, no correlation was found between OM and black carbon (BC) either at BC levels of 0–15 or 15–50 ng m 3, suggesting that OM concentrations up to peak values of 3.8 μg m 3 are predominantly natural in origin. Sophisticated carbon isotope analysis and aerosol mass spectral finger printing corroborate the natural source of OM with 80% biogenic source apportionment being observed for general clean air conditions, rising to 98% during specific primary marine organic plumes when peak concentrations >3 μg m 3 are observed. A range of other experiments are discussed which corroborate the dominance of a marine signal under Mace Head clean air criteria along. Further, analysis of a series of experiments conducted at Mace Head conclude that negligible coastal, surf zone, or tidal effects are discernible in the submicron size range for sampling heights of 7 m and above. The Mace Head clean air criteria ensures anthropogenic and coastal effects are sufficiently minimised so as to guarantee a dominant, if not at times, an overwhelming natural marine aerosol signal.
Predicting Baseball Home Run Records Using Exponential Frequency Distributions
D. J. Kelley,J. R. Mureika,J. A. Phillips
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: A new model, which uses the frequency of individuals' annual home run totals, is employed to predict future home run totals and records in Major League Baseball. Complete home run frequency data from 1903--2005 is analyzed, resulting in annual exponential distributions whose changes can be a used as a measure of progression in the sport and serve as a basis against which record-setting performances can be compared. We show that there is an 80% chance that Barry Bonds' current 73 home run record will be broken in the next 10 years, despite the longevity of previous records held by baseball legends Babe Ruth and Roger Marris.
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