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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 758 matches for " Keiko Mizuuchi "
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Physical Activity and Blood Lipids and Lipoproteins in Dialysis Patients
Hiroyuki Imamura,Keiko Mizuuchi,Reika Oshikata
International Journal of Nephrology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/106914
Abstract: The relationship between physical activity and blood lipids and lipoproteins in dialysis patients is reviewed in the context of the potentially confounding factors such as nutritional intake, cigarette smoking, obesity, alcohol intake, and physical activity levels in the general population and additional confounding factors such as mode of dialysis and diabetes in dialysis patients. The known associations in the general population of physical activity with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol subfractions and apolipoprotein A-I are more pronounced in hemodialysis patients than in peritoneal dialysis patients even after adjusting for these confounding factors. Examining studies on the effects of physical activity on blood lipids and lipoproteins, the most consistent observation is the noted decrease in triglycerides and increase in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin sensitivity in hemodialysis patients. The changes in lipids and lipoproteins in hemodialysis patients could be caused by changes in activity levels of lipoprotein lipase, insulin sensitivity, and/or glucose metabolism. Future research investigating the relationship between physical activity and blood lipids and lipoproteins in dialysis patients should direct research towards the underlying mechanisms for changes in blood lipids and lipoproteins. 1. Introduction Atherosclerotic heart disease is the leading cause of mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease [1–3]. Chronic kidney disease is associated with dyslipidemia, which seems to persist as renal failure advances and continues to affect clinical outcomes in patients on hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) [4–13]. Patients on HD and PD are at increased risk for atherosclerotic heart disease, which is due at least in part to atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities [1]. One study [14] compared traditional atherosclerotic heart disease risk factors among new dialysis patients with those in the general population and reported that the dialysis patients had a high prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, low physical activity, low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and high triglycerides (TG). Exercise capacity as measured by maximal oxygen uptake in HD and PD patients is lower than in sedentary normal controls [15], but dialysis patients regardless of the treatment mode could benefit from appropriate exercise training in order to increase physical working capacity [16–18]. The positive association of physical activity with HDL-C has been reported in the general population [19–21]. Although a
Preferential salivary-type hypoamylasemia in obese children.
Mizuuchi H,Taketa K
Acta Medica Okayama , 1999,
Abstract: Serum levels of total amylase, pancreatic type (P-type) isoamylase, and salivary type (S-type) isoamylase were measured in obese children (153 subjects; mean age, 10.1 years old; 86 boys and 67 girls) before and after weight reduction therapy. Serum amylase activities were determined using p-nitrophenylmaltoheptaoside as a substrate, with or without an antibody added to inhibit the S-type isoamylase. Serum levels of total amylase, P-type isoamylase and S-type isoamylase activities were significantly decreased in obese children with an obesity index more than 50%. S-type and P-type isoamylases showed negative correlation with the obesity index, the correlation coefficient being slightly larger in S-type than in P-type isoamylase. Analysis of the serum amylase activities in obese children who underwent weight reduction treatments showed a negative correlation only between the differences in S-type isoamylase activity and the differences in the obesity index. It may be concluded that the S-type isoamylase activity in serum of obese children is decreased and that it can be increased by reducing their body weight.
NSC-induced D-neurons are decreased in striatum of schizophrenia: Possible cause of mesolimbic dopamine hyperactivity  [PDF]
Keiko Ikemoto
Stem Cell Discovery (SCD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/scd.2012.22009
Abstract: Neural stem cell (NSC) hypofunction is an etiological hypothesis of schizophrenia. Although dopamine (DA) dysfunction is also a widely accepted hypothesis, molecular background of mesolimbic DA hyperactivity has not yet been well known. Here, the author proposes “D-cell hypothesis”, accounting for molecular basis of mesolimbic DA hyperactivity of schizophrenia, by NSC hypofunction and decrease of putative NSC-induced D-cells. The “D-cell” is defined as “non-monoaminergic aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC)-containing cell”. D-cells produce trace amines, and also take up amine precursors and convert them to amines by decarboxylation. The author reported “dopa-decarboxylating neurons specific to the human striatum”, that is, “D-neurons” in the human striatum, and decrease of striatal D-neurons in patients with schizophrenia. Trace amine-associated receptor, type 1 (TAAR1), a subtype of trace amine receptors, having a quite number of ligands such as tyramine, β-phenylethylamine (PEA) and methamphetamine, has modulating functions on monoamine neurons. It has been known that reduced binding of ligands to TAAR1 receptors on DA terminal of DA neurons of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) increased firing frequency of VTA DA neurons. In brains of schizophrenia, NSC hypofunction in the subventricular zone of lateral ventricle may cause decrease of D-neurons in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, and may result in decrease of trace amine signals. Decrease of trace amine signals to TAAR1 on VTA DA neurons may increase firing frequency of VTA DA neurons, and may finally cause mesolimbic DA hyperactivity. Increased stimulation to DA D2 receptors of NSCs might suppress NSC proliferation, and may induce additional mesolimbic DA hyperactivity as well as D-cell decrease. This novel theory, “D-cell hypothesis”, possibly explains mesolimbic DA hyperactivity in pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
D-Cell Hypothesis: Pathogenesis of Mesolimbic Dopamine Hyperactivity of Schizophrenia  [PDF]
Keiko Ikemoto
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.23048
Abstract: In the present article, the author proposes a new “D-cell hypothesis” for mesolimbic dopamine (DA) hyperactivity of schizophrenia, of which relevant molecular mechanism has not yet been known. The “D-cell” is defined as “the non-monoaminergic aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC)-containing cell”. The D-cell contains AADC but not dopaminergic nor serotonergic. D-cells produce trace amines, and also take up amine precursors and convert them to amines by decarboxylation. The author reported “dopa-decarboxylating neurons specific to the human striatum”, that is, “D-neurons” in the human striatum, and preliminarily the number reduction of D-neurons in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of postmortem brains of patients with schizophrenia. Trace amine-associated receptor, type 1 (TAAR1), a subtype of trace amine receptors, having a large number of ligands, including tyramine, β-phenylethylamine (PEA), and methamphetamine, is a target receptor for the latest neuroleptic discovery. Recent studies have shown that the decreased stimulation of TAAR1 on cell membranes or nerve terminals of DA neurons in the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) increased firing frequency of VTA DA neurons. In brains of schizophrenia, dysfunction of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of lateral ventricle may cause reduction of the number of D-neurons in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, and may result in decrease of trace amine synthesis. The decrease of stimulation of TAAR1 on terminals of VTA DA neurons caused by trace amine reduction may increase firing frequency of VTA DA neurons, and may finally cause mesolimbic DA hyperactivity. This innovative theory, “D-cell hypothesis” might explain mesolimbic DA hyperactivity in pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
“D-cell hypothesis” of schizophrenia: possible theory for mesolimbic dopamine hyperactivity  [PDF]
Keiko Ikemot
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2012.23021
Abstract: The author proposes a new “D-cell hypothesis” for mesolimbic dopamine (DA) hyperactivity of schizophrenia. The “D-cell” is defined as “non-monoaminergic aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC)-containing cell”. D-cells produce trace amines, such as tyramine and β-phenylethylamine, and may also take up amine precursors and convert them to amines by decarboxylation. Trace amine-associated receptor, type 1 (TAAR1), a subtype of trace amine receptors, has a large number of ligands, including tyramine, β-phenylethylamine and methamphetamine, that influence on human mental states, and is now regarded to be a target receptor for novel neuroleptics. Recent studies revealed that the reduced stimulation of TAAR1 on DA neurons in the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) increased firing frequency of VTA DA neurons. The author and her colleagues reported the decrease of D-neurons in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of postmortem brains of patients with schizophrenia. This may imply the decrease of trace amine synthesis, resulting the reduced stimulation of TAAR1 on terminals of midbrain VTA DA neurons, and may lead to mesolimbic DA hyperactivity in schizophrenia. The decrease of striatal D-neurons of postmortem brains of schizophrenia is supposed to be due to neural stem cell dysfunction in the subventricular zone of lateral ventricle. The decrease of striatal D-neurons and acts of TAAR1 signals on DA neurons-might explain mesolimbic DA hyperactivity of schizophrenia.
Why D-neuron? Importance in schizophrenia research  [PDF]
Keiko Ikemoto
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.224055
Abstract: Recent pharmacological discovery on trace amine-associated receptor, type 1(TAAR1) has emphasized importance of trace amines in pathogenesis of psychoses, such as schizophrenia. TAAR1 has many ligands, including tyramine, β-phenylethylamine (PEA), amphetamines, and 3’-iodothyronamine. So-called D-neurons are putative producer of trace amines, endogenous ligands of TAAR1. The D-neuron is defined “the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC)-containing neuron, but not dopaminergic nor serotonergic”, i.e. not containing tyrosine hydroxylase nor tryptophan hydroxylase. AADC is an enzyme, also called dopa decarboxylase (DDC). The localization of D-neurons in the central nervous system has been specified into 15 groups, from the spinal cord (D1) to striatum (D15). We showed the decrease of D-neurons in D15 in postmortem brains of schizophrenia, where midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are heavily innervated. Decrease of D-neurons may cause reduction of trace amines in the striatum, and may also decrease stimulation of TAAR1 on striatal terminals of ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. This might increase firing frequency of VTA DA neurons, and causes DA hyperactivity in the striatum and nucleus accumbens. In the present article, the author introduces the novel theory, “D-cell hypothesis”, for mesolimbic DA hyperactivity of schizophrenia. Some clinical and/or experimental evidences that support this hypothesis are mentioned. The D-neuron, as a trace amine producer, is a clue for elucidating pathogenesis of psychoses, as well as human mental functions. Thus, signal transduction of D-neurons should be investigated.
Chitosan Derivatives/Calcium Carbonate Composite Capsules Prepared by the Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method II Stabilization of the Shell by Crosslinking
Takashi Sasaki,Hiroto Mizuuchi,Kensuke Sakurai
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/476752
Abstract: The layer-by-layer deposition method is utilized to prepare rodlike core/shell capsules. Chitosan (polycation) and chitosansulfate (polyanion) were alternatively deposited on the surface of calcium carbonate whisker (rodlike particle). The thickness of the obtained shells ranged from 26 to 42?nm. After the deposition, the shell was treated with diisocyanate to form crosslink between the chitosan or chitosansulfate chains in order to stabilize the deposited shell. The obtained shell crosslinked rodlike capsules were successfully converted to hollow particles by immersing them into hydrochloric acid due to the enhanced shell stability, whereas from noncrosslinked shells, no hollow capsules were yielded: the shell was removed by dissolution in hydrochloric acid. It is revealed that the crosslinking reactivity is higher for 1,6-diisocyanatehexane than for tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate, suggesting that the reactivity depends on the size and flexibility of the crosslinking molecule. 1. Introduction The layer-by-layer deposition method is one of the most versatile and promising techniques to fabricate encapsulated nanoparticles [1], which can be used as diverse applications such as drug delivery system. In this technique, oppositely charged polyelectrolytes are alternatively deposited on a substrate or surface of template particle to construct a thin multilayered film or shell [2–6]. In general, the efficiency of the deposition depends on the chemistry and molecular weight of the polyelectrolytes, the ion strength, the pH value, and temperature [7–11]. Optimization of these deposition conditions is required to fabricate multilayers that have prescribed structures for various purposes. We have prepared various rodlike capsules consisting of a calcium carbonate core (whisker) and a polymer thin shell with the thickness of thinner than 100?nm by the suspension polymerization method. The thermal properties and dynamics of the yielded nanosized thin shells have also been studied [12–14]. Furthermore, we have developed the layer-by-layer technique to make rodlike capsules that have chitosan/chitosansulfate multilayered shells [15]. Chitosan is a derivative of chitin, a natural polysaccharide; thus the capsules with the chitosan/chitosansulfate shell are expected to be used as biocompatible and biodegradable nanomaterials. The chitosan/chitosansulfate/calcium carbonate capsules can be converted to hollow particles by removing the core via a simple acid treatment: calcium carbonate can be readily dissolved in hydrochloric acid. The hollow capsules thus yielded may be
Antenatal Diagnosis of Uterine Incarceration: Surgical Role of MRI and Intraoperative Transmyometrium Ultrasound  [PDF]
Masahito Mizuuchi, Sakura Takada, Masahiro Suzuki, Shin-ichi Ishioka, Toshiaki Endo, Tsuyoshi Saito
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.416149
Abstract:

Uterine incarceration is a rare condition thought to result from incarceration of a retroverted uterus in the small pelvis. The present case report describes a case of uterine incarceration caused by extensive pelvic adhesions after appendectomy for perforated appendicitis. A 39-year-old primigravida woman was referred to our obstetric unit for follow-up after successful in vitro fertilization. The symptoms related to uterine incarceration included anuria at 15 weeks of gestation and uterine contractions starting at 28 weeks of gestation. The absence of a cervical canal on ultrasonography is a key finding required to diagnose this rare condition. In the present case, the incision for uterotomy was determined by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging and transmyometrium ultrasonography during cesarean section. Both MRI and ultrasound images clearly showed anatomical relationships between the bladder, cervical canal and uterine wall. Clinicians need to know how the incision for uterotomy should be made and to avoid serious complications during cesarean section.

Effects of oleic acid on murine macrophage dysfunction  [PDF]
Naofumi Shiomi, Keiko Watanabe
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.66080
Abstract:

Obese individuals exhibit much higher risks not only for metabolic syndrome, but also for cancer and allergies, than normal-weight subjects. This fact suggests that signals secreted from adipocytes change the characteristics of lymphocytes, such as macrophages and T-cells. We focused on a free fatty acid, oleic acid, as a signal inducing such changes and examined its effects on murine J774.2 macrophages. When the cells were cultured in medium containing high concentrations (1, 2 and 4 mM) of oleic acid, apoptosis occurred, and the apoptotic cells were gathered into clusters of very large size by the work of enzymes for phagocytosis. When the cells were cultured in medium containing 0.5 mM of oleic acid, the fatty acid did not affect cell growth; however, it inhibited nitrogen monoxide (NO) secretion and the gene expressions of interleukins and TNF-α. NO disturbs the invasion of macrophages into blood vessels, and interleukins promote the differentiation and proliferation of T- and B-cells. Therefore, these results suggest that the high risks for cancer and allergies observed in obese subjects are associated with the dysfunction of macrophages induced by fatty acids. Moreover, we also examined the protective effects of carnitine against dysfunction. However, carnitine did not exhibit sufficient effects.

Distinct Transforming Activity of ABL Family Tyrosine Kinase Oncogenes Is Induced by Their C-Terminal Domain*  [PDF]
Keiko Okuda, Hideyo Hirai
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2013.33A005
Abstract: The TEL/ARG oncogene is similar in structure to the TEL/ABL fusion found in human leukemia, however, we have demonstrated previously that the expression of TEL/ARG in Ba/F3 cells does not sustain strong activity of proliferation, whereas, that of TEL/ABL appeared to induce immediate cell proliferation. To study the molecular basis of the difference in the transforming activity of TEL/ARG and TEL/ABL, TEL/ARG mutants that swapped the kinase domain or C-terminus of ARG with the corresponding domain in ABL were generated, and each mutant was expressed in Ba/F3 cells. A TEL/ARG mutant containing the ABL kinase domain was similar to TEL/ARG in this study, but replacing the ARG C-terminal domain with that of ABL resulted in accelerated proliferation that was similar to that of TEL/ABL. When expressed in primary mouse bone marrow cells by retroviral transduction, spontaneous colony formation in methylcellulose culture was observed, in a fashion dependent on the C-terminal portion of ABL. These results indicate that distinct bio-phenotypes associated with these oncogenes are likely to be regulated by their C-termini, and the C-terminus of ARG contains a functional subdomain that impairs the growth signal induced by ABL family tyrosine kinase.
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