Abstract:
We prove that a bounded domain $\Omega$ in $\R^n$ with smooth boundary has a periodic billiard trajectory with at most $n+1$ bounce times and of length less than $C_n r(\Omega)$, where $C_n$ is a positive constant which depends only on $n$, and $r(\Omega)$ is the supremum of radius of balls in $\Omega$. This result improves the result by C.Viterbo, which asserts that $\Omega$ has a periodic billiard trajectory of length less than $C'_n \vol(\Omega)^{1/n}$. To prove this result, we study symplectic capacity of Liouville domains, which is defined via symplectic homology.

Abstract:
We prove the finiteness of the Hofer-Zehnder capacity of unit disk cotangent bundles of closed Riemannian manifolds, under some simple topological assumptions on the manifolds. The key ingredient of the proof is a computation of the pair-of-pants product on Floer homology of cotangent bundles. We reduce it to a simple computation of the loop product, making use of results of A.Abbondandolo- M.Schwarz.

Abstract:
Let $V$ be a bounded domain with smooth boundary in $\R^n$, and $D^*V$ denote its disc cotangent bundle. We compute symplectic homology of $D^*V$, in terms of relative homology of loop spaces on the closure of $V$. We use this result to show that Floer-Hofer capacity of $D^*V$ is between $2r(V)$ and $2(n+1)r(V)$, where $r(V)$ denotes inradius of $V$. As an application, we study periodic billiard trajectories on $V$.

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to define a chain level refinement of the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) algebra structure on homology of the free loop space of a closed $C^\infty$-manifold. Namely, we propose a new chain model of the free loop space, and define an action of a certain chain model of the framed little disks operad on it, recovering the original BV structure on homology level. We also compare this structure to a solution of Deligne's conjecture for Hochschild cochain complexes of differential graded algebras. To define the chain model of the loop space, we introduce a notion of de Rham chains, which is a hybrid of singular chains and differential forms.

Abstract:
We study periodic billiard trajectories on a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary, by applying Morse theory to Lagrangian action functionals on the loop space of the manifold. Based on the approximation method due to Benci-Giannoni, we prove that nonvanishing of relative homology of a certain pair of loop spaces implies the existence of a periodic billiard trajectory. We also prove a parallel result for path spaces. We apply those results to show the existence of short billiard trajectories and short geodesic loops. We also recover two known results on the length of a shortest periodic billiard trajectory on a convex body: Ghomi's inequality, and Brunn-Minkowski type inequality due to Artstein-Ostrover.

Abstract:
We give an upper bound of a Hamiltonian displacement energy of a unit disk cotangent bundle $D^*M$ in a cotangent bundle $T^*M$, when the base manifold $M$ is an open Riemannian manifold. Our main result is that the displacement energy is not greater than $C r(M)$, where $r(M)$ is the inner radius of $M$, and $C$ is a dimensional constant. As an immediate application, we study symplectic embedding problems of unit disk cotangent bundles. Moreover, combined with results in symplectic geometry, our main result shows the existence of short periodic billiard trajectories and short geodesic loops.

Abstract:
Let $(M,\omega)$ be an aspherical symplectic manifold, which is closed or convex. Let $U$ be an open set in $M$, which admits a circle action generated by an autonomous Hamiltonian $H \in C^\infty(U)$, such that each orbit of the circle action is not contractible in $M$. Under these assumptions, we prove that the Hofer-Zehnder capacity of $U$ is bounded by the Hofer norm of $H$. The proof uses a variant of the energy-capacity inequality, which is proved by the theory of action selectors.

Abstract:
We show that a model of chain complex of the free loop space of a $C^\infty$-manifold, which is proposed in arxiv:1404.0153, admits an action of a certain dg operad. This is a chain level structure under the Chas-Sullivan BV structure on loop space homology. Our dg operad is a variant of the cacti operad, and we introduce combinatorial objects called "decorated cacti" to define it. We also define a chain level Gerstenhaber structure on Hochschild cochains of any differential graded algebra. Applied to the dga of differential forms, this structure is compatible with our chain level structure in string topology.

Abstract:
In this paper, we prove (1): for any closed contact three-manifold with a $C^\infty$-generic contact form, the union of periodic Reeb orbits is dense, (2): for any closed surface with a $C^\infty$-generic Riemannian metric, the union of closed geodesics is dense. The key observation is $C^\infty$-closing lemma for 3D Reeb flows, which follows from the fact that the embedded contact homology (ECH) spectral invariants recover the volume.

Abstract:
The objective of this note is to prove an existence result for brake orbits in classical Hamiltonian systems (which was first proved by S.V.Bolotin) by using Floer theory. To this end, we compute an open string analogue of symplectic homology (so called wrapped Floer homology) of some domains in cotangent bundles, which appear naturally in the study of classical Hamiltonian systems. The main part of the computations is to show invariance of wrapped Floer homology under certain handle attaching to domains.