Abstract:
In this review, we discuss how non-Gaussianity of cosmological perturbations arises from inflation. After introducing the in-in formalism to calculate the $n$-point correlation function of quantum fields, we present the computation of the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation generated in general single field inflation models. The shapes of the bispectrum are compared with the local-type non-Gaussianity that arises from non-linear dynamics on super-horizon scales.

Abstract:
We investigate the effect of the radion on cosmological perturbations in the brane world. The S^1/Z_2 compactified 5D Anti-de Sitter spacetime bounded by positive and negative tension branes is considered. The radion is the relative displacement of the branes in this model. We find two different kinds of the radion at the linear perturbation order for a cosmological brane. One describes a "fluctuation" of the brane which does not couple to matter on the brane. The other describes a "bend" of the brane which couples to the matter. The bend determines the curvature perturbation on the brane. At large scales, the radion interacts with anisotopic perturbations in the bulk. By solving the bulk anisotropic perturbations, large scale metric perturbations and anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) on the positive tension brane are calculated. We find an interesting fact that the radion contributes to the CMB anisotropies. The observational consequences of these effects are discussed.

Abstract:
We propose a new formulation to calculate the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) spectrum in the Randall Sundrum two-branes model based on recent progresses in solving the bulk geometry using a low energy approximation. The evolution of the anisotropic stress imprinted on the brane by the 5D Weyl tensor is calculated. An impact of the dark radiation perturbation on CMB spectrum is investigated in a simple model assuming an initially scale-invariant adiabatic perturbations. The dark radiation perturbation induces isocurvature perturbations, but the resultant spectrum can be quite different from the prediction of simple mixtures of adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations due to Weyl anisotropic stress.

Abstract:
The self-accelerating universe realizes the accelerated expansion of the universe at late times by large-distance modification of general relativity without a cosmological constant. The Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) braneworld model provides an explicit example of the self-accelerating universe. Recently, the DGP model becomes very popular to study the observational consequences of the modified gravity models as an alternative to dark energy models in GR. However, it has been shown that the self-accelerating universe in the DGP model contains a ghost at the linearized level. The ghost carries negative energy densities and it leads to the instability of the spacetime. In this article, we review the origin of the ghost in the self-accelerating universe and explore the physical implication of the existence of the ghost.

Abstract:
We present solutions for the late time evolution of cosmological tensor and scalar perturbations in a single-Randall-Sundrum brane world model. Assuming that the bulk is anti-de Sitter spacetime, the solutions for cosmological perturbations are derived by summing mode functions in Poincar\'e coordinate. The junction conditions imposed at the moving brane are solved numerically. The recovery of 4-dimensional Einstein gravity at late times is shown by solving the 5-dimensional perturbations throughout the infinite bulk. We also comment on several possibilities for having deviations from 4-dimensional Einstein gravity.

Abstract:
We study structure formation in phenomenological models in which the Friedmann equation receives a correction of the form $H^{\alpha}/r_c^{2-\alpha}$, which realize an accelerated expansion without dark energy. In order to address structure formation in these model, we construct simple covariant gravitational equations which give the modified Friedmann equation with $\alpha=2/n$ where $n$ is an integer. For $n=2$, the underlying theory is known as a 5D braneworld model (the DGP model). Thus the models interpolate between the DGP model ($n=2, \alpha=1$) and the LCDM model in general relativity ($n \to \infty, \alpha \to 0$). Using the covariant equations, cosmological perturbations are analyzed. It is shown that in order to satisfy the Bianchi identity at a perturbative level, we need to introduce a correction term $E_{\mu \nu}$ in the effective equations. In the DGP model, $E_{\mu \nu}$ comes from 5D gravitational fields and correct conditions on $E_{\mu \nu}$ can be derived by solving the 5D perturbations. In the general case $n>2$, we have to assume the structure of a modified theory of gravity to determine $E_{\mu \nu}$. We show that structure formation is different from a dark energy model in general relativity with identical expansion history and that quantitative features of the difference crucially depend on the conditions on $E_{\mu \nu}$, that is, the structure of the underlying theory of modified gravity. This implies that it is essential to identify underlying theories in order to test these phenomenological models against observational data and, once we identify a consistent theory, structure formation tests become essential to distinguish modified gravity models from dark energy models in general relativity.

Abstract:
We review recent attempts to address the cosmological constant problem and the late-time acceleration of the Universe based on braneworld models. In braneworld models, the way in which the vacuum energy gravitates in the 4D spacetime is radically different from conventional 4D physics. It is possible that the vacuum energy on a brane does not curve the 4D spacetime and only affects the geometry of the extra-dimensions, offering a solution to the cosmological constant problem. We review the idea of supersymmetric large extra dimensions that could achieve this and also provide a natural candidate for a quintessence field. We also review the attempts to explain the late-time accelerated expansion of the universe from the large-distance modification of gravity based on the braneworld. We use the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model to demonstrate how one can distinguish this model from dark energy models in 4D general relativity. Theoretical difficulties in this approach are also addressed.

Abstract:
We study the spectrum of gravitational perturbations about a vacuum de Sitter brane with the induced 4D Einstein-Hilbert term, in a 5D Minkowski spacetime (DGP model). We consider solutions that include a self-accelerating univese, where the accelerating expansion of the universe is realized without introducing a cosmological constant on the brane. The mass of the discrete mode for the spin-2 graviton is calculated for various $Hr_c$, where $H$ is the Hubble parameter and $r_c$ is the cross-over scale determined by the ratio between the 5D Newton constant and the 4D Newton constant. We show that, if we introduce a positive cosmological constant on the brane ($Hr_c >1$), the spin-2 graviton has mass in the range $0 < m^2 < 2H^2$ and there is a normalisable brane fluctuation mode with mass $m^2=2 H^2$. Although the brane fluctuation mode is healthy, the spin-2 graviton has a helicity-0 excitation that is a ghost. If we allow a negative cosmological constant on the brane, the brane bending mode becomes a ghost for $1/2 < Hr_c <1$. This confirms the results obtained by the boundary effective action that there exists a scalar ghost mode for $Hr_c >1/2$. In a self-accelerating universe $Hr_c=1$, the spin-2 graviton has mass $m^2=2H^2$, which is known to be a special case for massive gravitons in de Sitter spacetime where the graviton has no helicity-0 excitation and so no ghost. However, in DGP model, there exists a brane fluctuation mode with the same mass and there arises a mixing between the brane fluctuation mode and the spin-2 graviton. We argue that this mixing presumably gives a ghost in the self-accelerating universe by continuity across $Hr_c=1$, although a careful calculation of the effective action is required to verify this rigorously.

Abstract:
We derive a low-energy effective theory for gravity with anti-D branes, which are essential to get de Sitter solutions in the type IIB string warped compactification, by taking account of gravitational backreactions of anti-D branes. In order to see the effects of the self-gravity of anti-D branes, a simplified model is studied where a 5-dimensional anti-de Sitter ({\it AdS}) spacetime is realized by the bulk cosmological constant and the 5-form flux, and anti-D branes are coupled to the 5-form field by Chern-Simon terms. The {\it AdS} spacetime is truncated by introducing UV and IR cut-off branes like the Randall-Sundrum model. We derive an effective theory for gravity on the UV brane and reproduce the familiar result that the tensions of the anti-D branes give potentials suppressed by the forth-power of the warp factor at the location of the anti-D branes. However, in this simplified model, the potential energy never inflates the UV brane, although the anti-D-branes are inflating. The UV brane is dominated by dark radiation coming from the projection of the 5-dimensional Weyl tensor, unless the moduli fields for the anti-D branes are stabilized. We comment on the possibility of avoiding this problem in a realistic string theory compactification.

Abstract:
We show that brane induced gravity can be realized as a low energy effective theory of brane worlds with asymmetric warped compactification. A self-accelerating universe without cosmological constant on the brane can be realized in a model where one side of the bulk has finite volume, but the other side has infinite volume. The spin-2 perturbations for brane induced gravity and asymmetric warped compactification models have the same spectrum at low energies. For a de Sitter brane, the spin-2 graviton has mass in the range $0