This article discusses improvements in a puzzle authentication method that adopts the interface of the Puzzle and Dragons game [1] and is tolerant against video-recording attacks. A problem that the conventional puzzle authentication methods face is that they are time consuming and have low success rate in authentication. We evaluated improvements of the interface to verify the usability of the improved system. The results suggested that the usability in terms of operation time and authentication success rate attained a level that was comparable with other leading methods in the field.

Abstract:
We present an analysis leading to precise locations of the multicritical points for spin glasses on regular lattices. The conventional technique for determination of the location of the multicritical point was previously derived using a hypothesis emerging from duality and the replica method. In the present study, we propose a systematic technique, by an improved technique, giving more precise locations of the multicritical points on the square, triangular, and hexagonal lattices by carefully examining relationship between two partition functions related with each other by the duality. We can find that the multicritical points of the $\pm J$ Ising model are located at $p_c = 0.890813$ on the square lattice, where $p_c$ means the probability of $J_{ij} = J(>0)$, at $p_c = 0.835985$ on the triangular lattice, and at $p_c = 0.932593$ on the hexagonal lattice. These results are in excellent agreement with recent numerical estimations.

Abstract:
We show two fascinating topics lying between quantum information processing and statistical mechanics. First, we introduce an elaborated technique, the surface code, to prepare the particular quantum state with robustness against decoherence. Second, we show another interesting technique to employ quantum nature, quantum annealing. Through both of the topics, we would shed light on the birth of the interdisciplinary field between quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics.

Abstract:
We show several calculations to identify the critical point in the ground state in random spin systems including spin glasses on the basis of the duality analysis. The duality analysis is a profound method to obtain the precise location of the critical point in finite temperature even for spin glasses. We propose a single equality for identifying the critical point in the ground state from several speculations. The equality can indeed give the exact location of the critical points for the bond-dilution Ising model on several lattices and provides insight on further analysis on the ground state in spin glasses.

Abstract:
We show a practical application of the Jarzynski equality in quantum computation. Its implementation may open a way to solve combinatorial optimization problems, minimization of a real single-valued function, cost function, with many arguments. We consider to incorpolate the Jarzynski equality into quantum annealing, which is one of the generic algorithms to solve the combinatorial optimization problem. The ordinary quantum annealing suffers from non-adiabatic transitions whose rate is characterized by the minimum energy gap $\Delta_{\rm min.}$ of the quantum system under consideration. The quantum sweep speed is therefore restricted to be extremely slow for the achievement to obtain a solution without relevant errors. However, in our strategy shown in the present study, we find that such a difficulty would not matter.

Abstract:
Accuracy thresholds of quantum error correcting codes, which exploit topological properties of systems, defined on two different arrangements of qubits are predicted. We study the topological color codes on the hexagonal lattice and on the square-octagonal lattice by the use of mapping into the spin glass systems. The analysis for the corresponding spin glass systems consists of the duality, and the gauge symmetry, which has succeeded in deriving locations of special points, which are deeply related with the accuracy thresholds of topological error correcting codes. We predict that the accuracy thresholds for the topological color codes would be $1-p_c = 0.1096-8 $ for the hexagonal lattice and $1-p_c = 0.1092-3$ for the square-octagonal lattice, where $1-p$ denotes the error probability on each qubit. Hence both of them are expected to be slightly lower than the probability $1-p_c = 0.110028$ for the quantum Gilbert-Varshamov bound with a zero encoding rate.

Abstract:
We estimate optimal thresholds for surface code in the presence of loss via an analytical method developed in statistical physics. The optimal threshold for the surface code is closely related to a special critical point in a finite-dimensional spin glass, which is disordered magnetic material. We compare our estimations to the heuristic numerical results reported in earlier studies. Further application of our method to the depolarizing channel, a natural generalization of the noise model, unveils its wider robustness even with loss of qubits.

Abstract:
We give explicit formulas of the Bethe approximation with multipoint correlations for systems with magnetic field. The obtained formulas include the closed form of the magnetization and the correlations between adjacent degrees of freedom. On the basis of our results, we propose a new iterative algorithm of the improved Bethe approximation. We confirm that the proposed technique is available for the random spin systems and indeed gives more accurate locations of the critical points. We discuss the possibility of the application of our method to the Inverse Ising model by use of these equations.

Abstract:
We obtain the exact solution of the bond-percolation thresholds with inhomogenous probabilities on the square lattice. Our method is based on the duality analysis with real-space renormalization, which is a profound technique invented in the spin-glass theory. Our formulation is a more straightforward way compared to the very recent study on the same problem [R. M. Ziff, et. al., J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45 (2012) 494005]. The resultant generic formulas from our derivation can give several estimations for the bond-percolation thresholds on other lattices rather than the square lattice.