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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1332 matches for " Kazuo Hiraki "
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Relationship between Video Game Violence and Long-Term Neuropsychological Outcomes  [PDF]
Yoshiyuki Tamamiya, Goh Matsuda, Kazuo Hiraki
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.513159
Abstract: The current study examined the long-term effects of video game violence on aggressiveness and facial expression recognition using multiple measures. In Experiment 1, participants unfamiliar with video games were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game for four weeks. Before and after the game play interval, event-related potentials (ERP) evoked by facial expressions were recorded, and aggressiveness was measured with a questionnaire. Results showed that playing a violent video game delayed peak latency of a positive component of the ERP evoked by angry faces and increased aggressiveness among male participants. Experiment 2 included a 3-month follow-up assessment. Results showed preservation of delayed neural activity, while levels of aggressiveness diminished to some extent. These findings highlight differential aspects regarding the long-term effects of playing a violent video game: more enduring for facial expression recognition and short-lived for aggressiveness.
Individual Differences in the Recognition of Facial Expressions: An Event-Related Potentials Study
Yoshiyuki Tamamiya, Kazuo Hiraki
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057325
Abstract: Previous studies have shown that early posterior components of event-related potentials (ERPs) are modulated by facial expressions. The goal of the current study was to investigate individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions by examining the relationship between ERP components and the discrimination of facial expressions. Pictures of 3 facial expressions (angry, happy, and neutral) were presented to 36 young adults during ERP recording. Participants were asked to respond with a button press as soon as they recognized the expression depicted. A multiple regression analysis, where ERP components were set as predictor variables, assessed hits and reaction times in response to the facial expressions as dependent variables. The N170 amplitudes significantly predicted for accuracy of angry and happy expressions, and the N170 latencies were predictive for accuracy of neutral expressions. The P2 amplitudes significantly predicted reaction time. The P2 latencies significantly predicted reaction times only for neutral faces. These results suggest that individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions emerge from early components in visual processing.
Fearful Gaze Cueing: Gaze Direction and Facial Expression Independently Influence Overt Orienting Responses in 12-Month-Olds
Reiko Matsunaka, Kazuo Hiraki
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089567
Abstract: Gaze direction cues and facial expressions have been shown to influence object processing in infants. For example, infants around 12 months of age utilize others' gaze directions and facial expressions to regulate their own behaviour toward an ambiguous target (i.e., social referencing). However, the mechanism by which social signals influence overt orienting in infants is unclear. The present study examined the effects of static gaze direction cues and facial expressions (neutral vs. fearful) on overt orienting using a gaze-cueing paradigm in 6- and 12-month-old infants. Two experiments were conducted: in Experiment 1, a face with a leftward or rightward gaze direction was used as a cue, and a face with a forward gaze direction was added in Experiment 2. In both experiments, an effect of facial expression was found in 12-month-olds; no effect was found in 6-month-olds. Twelve-month-old infants exhibited more rapid overt orienting in response to fearful expressions than neutral expressions, irrespective of gaze direction. These findings suggest that gaze direction information and facial expressions independently influence overt orienting in infants, and the effect of facial expression emerges earlier than that of static gaze direction. Implications for the development of gaze direction and facial expression processing systems are discussed.
Mothers Exaggerate Their Finger Movements While Demonstrating Object Manipulation to Their Infants  [PDF]
Kaori Nagata, Eriko Yamamoto, Goh Matsuda, Kazuo Hiraki
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.912149
Abstract: We investigated whether mothers exaggerate the fine movements of their fingers when interacting with their infants, and whether infant-directed action is influenced by mothers’ beliefs about a demonstration-observer’s knowledge. Fifteen mothers demonstrated how to use a novel toy to their infant (Infant condition), an adult family member (Uninformed Adult condition), and an adult female who already knew how to use the toy (Informed Adult condition). An optical motion capture system was used to examine the mother’s wrist and finger movements, and her gaze was video recorded. Compared with the Uninformed Adult condition, in the Infant condition, mothers exaggerated their wrist movements when holding the toy in the same way as in previous studies, opened their fingers wider when reaching for the toy, and looked at the observer more often. There was no significant difference in hand movements between the Informed Adult and Uninformed Adult conditions: that is, the observer’s level of prior knowledge did not affect the mothers’ motions. This suggests that mothers may exaggerate their finger movements in order to attract their infants’ attention, not only while holding the object but even while initially reaching for it, while also monitoring the infant.
Neurobehavioral and Hemodynamic Evaluation of Cognitive Shifting in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  [PDF]
Akira Yasumura, Naomi Kokubo, Hisako Yamamoto, Yukiko Yasumura, Yusuke Moriguchi, Eiji Nakagawa, Masumi Inagaki, Kazuo Hiraki
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.24054
Abstract: The restrictive, stereotyped behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is considered to be related to deficits in execu- tive function. In particular, cognitive shifting in executive function is deeply related to stereotyped behavior in ASD. Previous investigations have clarified that the lateral prefrontal cortex is involved in cognitive shifting when flexible changes in attention were needed. However, a few studies have revealed a direct association between cognitive shifting tasks and lateral prefrontal cortex activity in children with ASD. We examined cognitive shifting in 7- to 12-year-old children with ASD and typically developing children using the dimensional change card sort task. In addition, using near-infrared spectroscopy, we examined prefrontal brain activity in conjunction with cognitive shifting. The autistic children provided fewer correct answers and slower reaction times in the task than typically developing children. Fur- thermore, the autistic children displayed a decline in right lateral prefrontal cortex activity during the task compared with typically developing children. In addition, a negative correlation was observed between the severity of autism and brain activity during the task. These results suggest that the activity and physiological indices used in this study may be useful for identifying the symptoms of ASD and discriminating ASD from other disabilities.
Rubber Hand Illusion under Delayed Visual Feedback
Sotaro Shimada,Kensuke Fukuda,Kazuo Hiraki
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006185
Abstract: Rubber hand illusion (RHI) is a subject's illusion of the self-ownership of a rubber hand that was touched synchronously with their own hand. Although previous studies have confirmed that this illusion disappears when the rubber hand was touched asynchronously with the subject's hand, the minimum temporal discrepancy of these two events for attenuation of RHI has not been examined.
Relationship between Neural Activity and Executive Function: An NIRS Study
Akira Yasumura,Masumi Inagaki,Kazuo Hiraki
ISRN Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/734952
Abstract: Objective. This study examined the relationship between neural activity and executive function (EF) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In addition, an oral reading span test (RST) was used to explore this association. Methods. Fifteen adults participated in the study. We used the RST and simple reading as the two tasks. Results. The RST score and cortical hemodynamic response in the left inferior frontal gyrus were significantly correlated. Conclusion. Based on the oral RST performance assessment and NIRS examination, the present findings suggest a relationship between EF and cortical activation. 1. Introduction As an executive function (EF), working memory refers to the brain system that stores and manipulates information over brief periods and represents a key process for cognitive functions such as planning, reasoning, and problem solving [1]. The reading span test (RST) was developed and implemented to behaviorally measure individual differences in verbal working memory capacity employed by processing and storage functions during reading [2]. The RST is a dual-task paradigm in which participants are required to read a sentence and simultaneously remember target words. This span correlates with three reading comprehension measures, including the verbal scholastic aptitude test (SAT) and tests involving fact retrieval and pronominal references. These results contrast with those of traditional digit span and word span measures that do not correlate with comprehension [2]. The reader must also store the text theme, representation of the situation to which it refers, major propositions from preceding sentences, and a running, multilevel representation of the sentence that is currently being read. Thus, language comprehension is an excellent example of a task that demands extensive storage of partial and final products during complex information processing [2]. Recent neuroimaging studies have attempted to explore the neural basis of working memory systems based on Baddeley’s theory [3]. It has been proposed that two types of working memory processes, which are executive control processes, are observed in distinct cortical structures located in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and modality-specific buffers located in more posterior regions [4–6]. Activation of the dorsolateral PFC is observed when two types of tasks are performed together [7], such as during a task performed with a self-monitoring system [8] or during a task requiring executive control [9]. In this view, resource allocation during the span task would be controlled by the central executive
Observed Human Actions, and Not Mechanical Actions, Induce Searching Errors in Infants
Yusuke Moriguchi,Reiko Matsunaka,Shoji Itakura,Kazuo Hiraki
Child Development Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/465458
Abstract: Recent neurophysiological studies have shown that several human brain regions involved in executing actions are activated by merely observing such actions via a human, and not by a mechanical hand. At a behavioral level, observing a human’s movements, but not those of a robot, significantly interferes with ongoing executed movements. However, it is unclear whether the biological tuning in the observation/execution matching system are functional during infancy. The present study examines whether a human’s actions, and not a mechanical action, influence infants’ execution of the same actions due to the observation/execution matching system. Twelve-month-old infants were given a searching task. In the tasks, infants observed an object hidden at location A, after which either a human hand (human condition) or a mechanical one (mechanical condition) searched the object correctly. Next, the object was hidden at location B and infants were allowed to search the object. We examined whether infants searched the object at location B correctly. The results revealed that infants in the human condition were more likely to search location A than those in the mechanical condition. Moreover, the results suggested that infants’ searching behaviors were affected by their observations of the same actions by a human, but not a mechanical hand. Thus, it may be concluded that the observation/execution matching system may be biologically tuned during infancy. 1. Introduction It has been proposed that actions are intrinsically linked to perception, and that imagining, observing, or in any way representing an action, excites the motor programs used to execute such actions. This proposal is originally derived from James’ ideomotor theory [1] and recently developed by Prinz’s common coding framework [2]. According to this framework, the representation of a perceived action involves simulative production of that action on the part of the observer. This covert motor activation results in the observation of an action facilitating its execution. Neurophysiological studies have supported the common coding framework by showing that several brain regions (e.g., the primary motor cortex) involved in executing actions are activated by the mere observation of such actions, through what is known as the mirror neuron in animals [3, 4] and the mirror neuron system in human [5, 6]. Importantly, the mirror neuron system can respond only to biological actions [7]. On the behavioral level, the biological tuning leads to the fact that observing a human’s arm movements, but not those of a robot,
Is Adenosine Deaminase in Pleural Fluid a Useful Marker for Differentiating Tuberculosis from Lung Cancer or Mesothelioma in Japan, a Country with Intermediate Incidence of Tuberculosis?
Acta Medica Okayama , 2011,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of the determination of adenosine deaminase (ADA) level in pleural fluid for the differential diagnosis between tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) and malignant pleural effusion (MPE) in Japan, a country with intermediate incidence of tuberculosis (TB). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 435 patients with pleural effusion and investigated their pleural ADA levels as determined by an auto analyzer. ROC analysis was also performed. The study included patients with MPE (n=188), TPE (n=124), benign nontuberculous pleural effusion (n=94), and pleural effusion of unknown etiology (n=29). The median ADA level in the TPE group was 70.8U/L, which was significantly higher than that in any other groups (p<0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) in ROC analysis was 0.895. With a cut-off level for ADA of 36U/L, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 85.5%, 86.5%, 69.7%, and 93.6%, respectively. As many as 9% of patients with lung cancer and 15% of those with mesothelioma were false-positive with this ADA cutoff setting. Although the ADA activity in pleural fluid can help in the diagnosis of TPE, it should be noted that some cases of lung cancer or mesothelioma show high ADA activity in geographical regions with intermediate incidence of TB, in contrast to high prevalence areas.
Urinary oxytocin positively correlates with performance in facial visual search in unmarried males, without specific reaction to infant face
Atsuko Saito,Takefumi Kikusui,Kazutaka Mogi,Takashi Higuchi,Toshikazu Hasegawa,Kazuo Hiraki
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00217
Abstract: The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a central role in prosocial and parental behavior in non-human mammals as well as humans. It has been suggested that oxytocin may affect visual processing of infant faces and emotional reaction to infants. Healthy male volunteers (N = 13) were tested for their ability to detect infant or adult faces among adult or infant faces (facial visual search task). Urine samples were collected from all participants before the study to measure the concentration of oxytocin. Urinary oxytocin positively correlated with performance in the facial visual search task. However, task performance and its correlation with oxytocin concentration did not differ between infant faces and adult faces. Our data suggests that endogenous oxytocin is related to facial visual cognition, but does not promote infant-specific responses in unmarried men who are not fathers.
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