Abstract:
The magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic-ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic trimerized spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain are studied theoretically. The high temperature susceptibilty and the ground state saturation magnetic field are calculated and the exchange energies of the trimer compound 3CuCl${}_2\cdot$2dx are determined. The magnetization curve is obtained by numerical diagonalization of finite size systems. The result explains the low temperature magnetization data for 3CuCl${}_2\cdot$2dx with the exchange energies obtained as above. It is predicted that the magnetization curve has a plateau at 1/3 of the saturation magnetization if the ferromagnetic exchange energy is comparable to or smaller than the antiferromagnetic exchange energy.

Abstract:
The natural explanation of the excitation spectrum of the spin-1 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain is given from the viewpoint of the spin-1/2 ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic alternating Heisenberg chain. The energy spectrum of the latter is calculated with fixed momentum $k$ by numerical diagonalization of finite size systems. It consists of a branch of propagating triplet pair (triplet wave) and the continuum of multiple triplet waves for weak ferromagnetic coupling. As the ferromagnetic coupling increases, the triplet wave branch is absorbed in the continuum for small $k$, reproducing the characteristics of the spin-1 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain.

Abstract:
The low energy properties of the spin-1/2 random Heisenberg chain with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions are studied by means of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and real space renormalization group (RSRG) method for finite chains. The results of the two methods are consistent with each other. The deviation of the gap distribution from that of the random singlet phase and the formation of the large-spin state is observed even for relatively small systems. For a small fraction of the ferromagnetic bond, the effect of the crossover to the random singlet phase on the low temperature susceptibility and specific heat is discussed. The crossover concentration of the ferromagnetic bond is estimated from the numerical data.

Abstract:
Low energy properties of the S=1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains with Fibonacci exchange modulation are studied using the real space renormalization group method for strong exchange modulation. It is found that the ground state of this model belongs to a new universality class with logarithmically divergent dynamical exponent which is neither like Fibonacci XY chains nor like XY chains with relevant aperiodicity.

Abstract:
The density matrix renormalization group method is generalized to one dimensional random systems. Using this method, the energy gap distribution of the spin-1/2 random antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain is calculated. The results are consistent with the predictions of the renormalization group theory demonstrating the effectiveness of the present method in random systems. The possible application of the present method to other random systems is discussed.

Abstract:
The ground state and low lying excitation of the spin 1/2 Heisenberg ladder with antiferromagnetic leg ($J$) and ferromagnetic rung ($-\lambda J, \lambda >0$) interaction is studied by means of the density matrix renormalization group method. It is found that the state remains in the Haldane phase even for small $\lambda \sim 0.02$ suggesting the continuous transition to the gapless phase at $\lambda = 0$. The critical behavior for small $\lambda$ is studied by the finite size scaling analysis. The result is consistent with the recent field theoretical prediction.

Abstract:
The ground state of the square lattice bilayer quantum antiferromagnet with nearest and next-nearest neighbour intralayer interaction is studied by means of the modified spin wave method. For weak interlayer coupling, the ground state is found to be always magnetically ordered while the quantum disordered phase appear for large enough interlayer coupling. The properties of the disordered phase vary according to the strength of the frustration. In the regime of weak frustration, the disordered ground state is an almost uncorrelated assembly of interlayer dimers, while in the strongly frustrated regime the quantum spin liquid phase which has considerable N\'eel type short range order appears. The behavior of the sublattice magnetization and spin-spin correlation length in each phase is discussed.

Abstract:
The ground-state phase diagram of $S=2$ antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains with coexisting uniform and alternating single-site anisotropies is investigated by the numerical exact diagonalization and density matrix renormalization group methods. We find the Haldane, large-$D$, N\'eel, period-doubled N\'eel, gapless spin fluid, quantized and partial ferrimagnetic phases. The Haldane phase is limited to the close neighborhood of the isotropic point. Within numerical accuracy, the transition from the gapless spin-fluid phase to the period-doubled N\'eel phase is a direct transition. Nevertheless, the presence of a narrow spin-gap phase between these two phases is suggested on the basis of the low-energy effective theory. The ferrimagnetic ground state is present in a wide parameter range. This suggests the realization of magnetized single-chain magnets with a uniform spin magnitude by controlling the environment of each magnetic ion without introducing ferromagnetic interactions.

Abstract:
The ground state phase transitions in the distorted S=1 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet (KHAF) with single-site anisotropy D are studied by the numerical exact diagonalization method. For strong easy plane anisotropy, the hexgonal singlet solid (HSS) ground state of the uniform KHAF is destroyed and large-D state is realized. The quantum phase transition between these two states is analogous to the Haldane-large-D transition in the S=1 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain. The combined effect of the sqrt(3) times sqrt(3) lattice distortion and single site anisotropy is also investigated. The ground state phase diagram expected from the numerical results is presented. The presence of this transition is consistent with the HSS picture of the ground state of the uniform S=1 KHAF and supports its validity.

Abstract:
The multiple reentrant quantum phase transitions in the $S=1/2$ antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains with random bond alternation in the magnetic field are investigated by the density matrix renormalization group method combined with the interchain mean field approximation. It is assumed that the odd-th bond is antiferromagnetic with strength $J$ and even-th bond can take the values ${\JS}$ and ${\JW}$ $ ({\JS} > J > {\JW} > 0)$ randomly with probability $p$ and $1-p$, respectively. The pure version ($p=0$ and $p=1$) of this model has a spin gap but exhibits a field induced antiferromagnetism in the presence of interchain coupling if Zeeman energy due to the magnetic field exceeds the spin gap. For $0 < p < 1$, the antiferromagnetism is induced by randomness at small field region where the ground state is disordered due to the spin gap in the pure case. At the same time, this model exhibits randomness induced plateaus at several values of magnetization. The antiferromagnetism is destroyed on the plateaus. As a consequence, we find a series of reentrant quantum phase transitions between the transverse antiferromagnetic phases and disordered plateau phases with the increase of the magnetic field for moderate strength of interchain coupling. Above the main plateaus, the magnetization curve consists of a series of small plateaus and the jumps between them, It is also found that the antiferromagnetism is induced by infinitesimal interchain coupling at the jumps between the small plateaus. We conclude that this antiferromagnetism is supported by the mixing of low lying excited states by the staggered interchain mean field even though the spin correlation function is short ranged in the ground state of each chain.