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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 861 matches for " Kazunori Ishibashi "
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Simultaneous Monitoring of Nitrogen Dioxide and Aerosol Concentrations with Dual Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy  [PDF]
Hayato Saito, Yutaro Goto, Yusaku Mabuchi, Ilham Alimuddin, Gerry Bagtasa, Naohiro Manago, Hitoshi Irie, Ippei Harada, Toshihiko Ishibashi, Kazunori Yashiro, Shumpei Kameyama, Hiroaki Kuze
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2014.31003
Abstract:

Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is a useful technique for measuring nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and aerosol, the most important species in urban environmental pollution. This paper reports on the results of our dual path DOAS measurements recently conducted in Chiba City, Japan, using xenon flashlights equipped on tall constructions as aviation obstruction lights. Because of the proximity of the southern DOAS path to an industrial area, it is found that the level of air pollution generally increases with the dominance of westerly winds, from the plausible source area to the observation light path. This situation is consistent with the result of wind lidar measurement covering a sector of ±28? with the observation range of approximately 2.8 km. In spite of the fact that the two DOAS paths, having path lengths of 5.5 and 3.5 km each, are located in separated regions of Chiba City, the observed temporal behavior was similar for both nitrogen dioxide and aerosol, though the southern path tends to exhibit slightly higher pollution levels than the northern counterpart. Additionally it is confirmed that size information of aerosol particles can be derived from the DOAS data through the analysis of the wavelength dependence of the aerosol optical thickness, which shows fairly good correlation with the mass ratio between PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) obtained from the in-situ sampling station measurement. Thus, the DOAS approach can also be utilized for obtaining information on PM2.5 that is considered to be more harmful to human health than SPM.

Critical Differences and Clues in Eta Car's 2009 Event
Andrea Mehner,Kris Davidson,John C. Martin,Roberta M. Humphreys,Kazunori Ishibashi,Gary J. Ferland
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/740/2/80
Abstract: We monitored Eta Carinae with HST WFPC2 and Gemini GMOS throughout the 2009 spectroscopic event, which was expected to differ from its predecessor in 2003 (Davidson et al. 2005). Here we report major observed differences between events, and their implications. Some of these results were quite unexpected. (1) The UV brightness minimum was much deeper in 2009. This suggests that physical conditions in the early stages of an event depend on different parameters than the "normal" inter-event wind. Extra mass ejection from the primary star is one possible cause. (2) The expected He II 4687 brightness maximum was followed several weeks later by another. We explain why this fact, and the timing of the 4687 maxima, strongly support a "shock breakup" hypothesis for X-ray and 4687 behavior as proposed 5-10 years ago. (3) We observed a polar view of the star via light reflected by dust in the Homunculus nebula. Surprisingly, at that location the variations of emission-line brightness and Doppler velocities closely resembled a direct view of the star; which should not have been true for any phenomena related to the orbit. This result casts very serious doubt on all the proposed velocity interpretations that depend on the secondary star's orbital motion. (4) Latitude-dependent variations of H I, He I and Fe II features reveal aspects of wind behavior during the event. In addition, we discuss implications of the observations for several crucial unsolved problems.
Latitude-dependent effects in the stellar wind of Eta Carinae
Nathan Smith,Kris Davidson,Theodore R. Gull,Kazunori Ishibashi,John Hillier
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/367641
Abstract: The Homunculus reflection nebula around eta Carinae provides a rare opportunity to observe the spectrum of a star from multiple latitudes. We present STIS spectra of several positions in the Homunculus, showing directly that eta Car has an aspherical stellar wind. P Cygni absorption in Balmer lines depends on latitude, with high velocities and strong absorption near the poles. Stronger absorption at high latitudes is surprising, and it suggests higher mass flux toward the poles, perhaps resulting from radiative driving with equatorial gravity darkening on a rotating star. Reflected profiles of He I lines are more puzzling, offering clues to the wind geometry and ionization structure. During eta Car's high-excitation state in March 2000, the wind was fast and dense at the poles, with higher ionization at low latitudes. Older STIS data obtained since 1998 reveal that this global stellar-wind geometry changes during eta Car's 5.5 year cycle, and may suggest that this star's spectroscopic events are shell ejections. Whether or not a companion star triggers these outbursts remains ambiguous. The most dramatic changes in the wind occur at low latitudes, while the dense polar wind remains relatively undisturbed during an event. The apparent stability of the polar wind also supports the inferred bipolar geometry. The wind geometry and its variability have critical implications for understanding the 5.5 year cycle and long-term variability, but do not provide a clear alternative to the binary hypothesis for generating eta Car's X-rays.
Eta Carinae's 2014.6 Spectroscopic Event: The Extraordinary He II and N II Features
Kris Davidson,Andrea Mehner,Roberta Humphreys,John C. Martin,Kazunori Ishibashi
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/801/1/L15
Abstract: Eta Carinae's spectroscopic events (periastron passages) in 2003, 2009, and 2014 differed progressively. He II 4687 and nearby N II multiplet 5 have special significance because they respond to very soft X-rays and the ionizing UV radiation field (EUV). HST/STIS observations in 2014 show dramatic increases in both features compared to the previous 2009.1 event. These results appear very consistent with a progressive decline in the primary wind density, proposed years ago on other grounds. If material falls onto the companion star near periastron, the accretion rate may now have become too low to suppress the EUV
Swimmer simulation using robot manipulator dynamics under steady water  [PDF]
Kazunori Shinohara
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.29117
Abstract: To help swimmers improve, we have developed a computational swimming model using underwater manipulator dynamics. We formulate the equations of the underwater manipulator dynamics using the fluid drag, which is proportional to the square of the velocity. We construct a swimming model consisting of several links based on these equations. The distance traveled by the optimal swimming motion is derived using the model. The input parameters are the joint torques. The arm and leg positions in the model are determined from the joint torques. The force transmitted from the water to the manipulator is defined to be the action force, and the force transmitted from the manipulator to the water is defined to be the reaction force. This reaction force is defined to be the propulsion force. By combining the propulsion force generated by the arms and legs and the frictional drag with respect to the body we can calculate the distance traveled. To optimize the propulsion, which depends on the swimmer’s motion, a variational approach using the Lagrange function is applied. We can use the model to simulate 2D pseudo-backstroke motion. Our model has a lower cost than other techniques in the literature, because it does not require computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The swimmer velocity calculated by our model agrees quite closely with the results in the literature. The model qualitatively captures the movement of an actual swimmer.
Optimal Trajectory of Underwater Manipulator Using Adjoint Variable Method for Reducing Drag  [PDF]
Kazunori Shinohara
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2011.13018
Abstract: In order to decrease the fluid drag on an underwater robot manipulator, an optimal trajectory method based on the variational method is presented. By introducing the adjoint variables, which are Lagrange multipliers, we formulate a Lagrange function under certain constraints related to the target angle, target angular velocity, and dynamic equation of the robot manipulator. The state equation (the partial differentiation of the Lagrange function with respect to the state variables), adjoint equation (the partial differentiation of the Lagrange function with respect to the adjoint variables), and sensitivity equation (the partial differentiation of the Lagrange function with respect to torques) can be derived from the stationary conditions of the Lagrange function. Using the state equation, we can calculate the state variables (angles, angular velocities, and angular acceleration) at every time step in the forward time direction. These state variables are stored as data at every time step. Next, by using the adjoint equation, we can calculate the adjoint variables by using these state variables at every time step in the backward time direction. These adjoint variables are stored as data at every time step. Third, the sensitivity equation is calculated by using both the state variables and the adjoint variables. Finally, the optimal trajectory of the manipulator is obtained using the sensitivities. The proposed method is applied to the problem of two-link manipulators. It can obtain the optimal drag reduction trajectory of the manipulator under the constraints mentioned above.
Swimmer simulation using robot manipulator dynamics under steady water  [PDF]
Kazunori Shinohara
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2009.29117
Abstract: To help swimmers improve, we have developed a computational swimming model using underwater manipulator dynamics. We formulate the equations of the underwater manipulator dynamics using the fluid drag, which is proportional to the square of the velocity. We construct a swimming model consisting of several links based on these equations. The distance traveled by the optimal swimming motion is derived using the model. The input parameters are the joint torques. The arm and leg positions in the model are determined from the joint torques. The force transmitted from the water to the manipulator is defined to be the action force, and the force transmitted from the manipulator to the water is defined to be the reaction force. This reaction force is defined to be the propulsion force. By combining the propulsion force generated by the arms and legs and the frictional drag with respect to the body we can calculate the distance traveled. To optimize the propulsion, which depends on the swimmer’s motion, a variational approach using the Lagrange function is applied. We can use the model to simulate 2D pseudo-backstroke motion. Our model has a lower cost than other techniques in the literature, because it does not require computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The swimmer velocity calculated by our model agrees quite closely with the results in the literature. The model qualitatively captures the movement of an actual swimmer.
A Sea Change in Eta Carinae
Andrea Mehner,Kris Davidson,Roberta M. Humphreys,John C. Martin,Kazunori Ishibashi,Gary J. Ferland,Nolan R. Walborn
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/717/1/L22
Abstract: Major stellar-wind emission features in the spectrum of Eta Car have recently decreased by factors of order 2 relative to the continuum. This is unprecedented in the modern observational record. The simplest, but unproven, explanation is a rapid decrease in the wind density.
Near-Infrared Evidence for a Sudden Temperature Increase in Eta Carinae
Andrea Mehner,Kazunori Ishibashi,Patricia Whitelock,Takahiro Nagayama,Michael Feast,Francois van Wyk,Willem-Jan de Wit
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322729
Abstract: Aims. Eta Car's ultra-violet, optical, and X-ray light curves and its spectrum suggest a physical change in its stellar wind over the last decade. It was proposed that the mass-loss rate decreased by a factor of about 2 in the last 15 years. We complement these recent results by investigating the past evolution and the current state of eta Car in the near-infrared (IR). Methods. We present JHKL photometry of eta Car obtained at SAAO Sutherland from 2004-2013 with the Mk II photometer at the 0.75-m telescope and JHKs photometry with SIRIUS at the 1.4-m IRSF telescope from 2012-2013. The near-IR light curves since 1972 are analyzed. Results. The long-term brightening trends in eta Car's JHKL light curves were discontinuous around the 1998 periastron passage. After 1998, the star shows excess emission above the extrapolated trend from earlier dates, foremost in J and H, and the blueward, cyclical progression in its near-IR colors is accelerated. The near-IR color evolution is strongly correlated with the periastron passages. After correcting for the secular trend we find that the color evolution matches an apparent increase in blackbody temperature of an optically thick near-IR emitting plasma component from about 3500 to 6000 K over the last 20 years. Conclusions. We suggest that the changing near-IR emission may be caused by variability in optically thick bremsstrahlung emission. Periastron passages play a key role in the observed excess near-IR emission after 1998 and the long-term color evolution. We thus propose as a hypothesis that angular momentum transfer (via tidal acceleration) during periastron passages leads to sudden changes in eta Car's atmosphere resulting in a long-term decrease in the mass-loss rate.
Secular Changes in Eta Carinae's Wind 1998-2011
Andrea Mehner,Kris Davidson,Roberta M. Humphreys,Kazunori Ishibashi,John C. Martin,Maria Teresa Ruiz,Frederick M. Walter
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/751/1/73
Abstract: Stellar wind-emission features in the spectrum of eta Carinae have decreased by factors of 1.5-3 relative to the continuum within the last 10 years. We investigate a large data set from several instruments (STIS, GMOS, UVES) obtained between 1998 and 2011 and we analyze the progression of spectral changes in the direct view of the star, in the reflected polar-on spectra at FOS4, and at the Weigelt knots. We find that the spectral changes occurred gradually on a time scale of about 10 years and that they are dependent on the viewing angle. The line strengths declined most in our direct view of the star. About a decade ago, broad stellar wind-emission features were much stronger in our line-of-sight view of the star than at FOS4. After the 2009 event, the wind-emission line strengths are now very similar at both locations. High-excitation He I and N II absorption lines in direct view of the star strengthened gradually. The terminal velocity of Balmer P Cyg absorption lines now appears to be less latitude-dependent and the absorption strength may have weakened at FOS4. Latitude-dependent alterations in the mass-loss rate and the ionization structure of eta Carinae's wind are likely explanations for the observed spectral changes.
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