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paper uses a series of Tanzania’s annual real GDP data for the period of 1970
to 2010, to investigate the transmission channels through which the ongoing
financial crisis is affecting the economy. The channels which were examined are
foreign aid, export earnings and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). The paper
also investigated how an increase in government expenditure, as popularly known
as the stimulus package can boost the Tanzanian economy. Foreign aid was found
to possess the positive sign as was expected and is statistically significant.
Therefore there is a possibility that the ongoing global crisis has impacted
the economy via a reduced foreign aid which is associated with recession in the
developed economies; aid donors in this context. It was also found that the
global financial crisis had a significant effect on Tanzania’s economic growth
through other transmission channels namely FDI and exports. However, all the
coefficients were small, indicating the little impact of the global financial
crisis to Tanzania’s economy.
Objective: Contraception has gained gradual popularity in many parts of the developing world including Pakistan. Despite this increase in acceptance, the birth rate remains high. Failure of contraception has been reported in the literature, which made us aim to conduct this study. The efficiency of hormonal contraceptives in the study area was assessed and this is the first report from Pakistan. Methods: A total of 200 women (aged 20-30 and 31-40 years; n = 100 each) with minimum consistent use of hormonal contraceptives in the form of pills (Combined oral contraceptives) for 12 months were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected from women of each age group and corresponding control groups (n = 100) from local hospitals and reproductive health service center. Serum levels of the fertility hormones viz leutinizing and follicle stimulating hormones were measured through ELISA technique. Results: Our data revealed that over all in the both age groups, 72% women had normal, 16% increased and 12% showed decreased levels of leutinizing hormone (p > 0.05) and 67% women showed normal, 33% showed decreased and no increased levels were found for follicle stimulating hormone (p > 0.05). No age-wise significant difference in response was observed among both the age groups tested. Conclusion: Statistically insignificant difference in serum leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone seen among both the age groups of hormonal contraceptive users and control group indicates less effective hormonal contraception response in the study area.